National Reports



National Report of Australia

NATIONAL REPORT SUBMITTED BY AUSTRALIA

                                                                                     

 

1.         ICG/ITSU National Contact:

            Name:                          Dr Ray Canterford

            Organization:                Weather and Ocean Services Policy Branch, Bureau  

                                               of Meteorology

            Postal Address:            GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, Vic. 3001, AUSTRALIA

            E-mail Address:            This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Telephone Number:       +613 9669 4087

            Fax Number:                 +613 9669 4695

            Cellular phone:               +614 1324 4305

 

2.         Primary Warning Recipient. 

            Name: Shift Supervisor

            Responsible Organization: National Meteorological and Oceanographic Centre,
                                                    Bureau of Meteorology

            Postal Address: GPO Box 1289K

                                     Melbourne, Vic. 3001, AUSTRALIA

            E-mail Address:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Emergency Telephone Number:  +613 9662 2182

            Emergency Fax Number:            +613 9662 1223

            Emergency Cellular phone:

 

3.         Tsunami Advisor(s). 

            Name:  Mr Rick Bailey, Oceanographic Services Program Manager

            Postal Address: Bureau of Meteorology, GPO Box 1289K

                                     Melbourne, Vic. 3001, AUSTRALIA

            E-mail Address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Emergency Telephone Number:   +613 9669 4103

            Emergency Fax Number:            +613 9669 4695

            Emergency Cellular phone:   +614 1712 2746

 

Name:   Director, National Tidal Facility Australia[1] 

Postal Address: National Tidal Facility Australia, GPO Box 2100

                        Adelaide, SA 5001, AUSTRALIA

            E-mail Address:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.     or  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Emergency Telephone Number:   +618 8201 7525

            Emergency Fax Number:            +618 8201 7523

            Emergency Cellular phone:   +614 1301 7664

 

 4.        Local Tsunami Procedures.   

In Australia operational advice about tsunamis and provision of tsunami alert information is provided by a joint activity of three federal government agencies (G3), the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), Geoscience Australia (GA), and Emergency Management Australia (EMA) with support and advice of the National Tidal Facility (NTFA)[2].  EMA provides advice on management of emergency response actions and public communications aspects. GA provides national seismic detection capabilities, and advises the BOM and the NTFA of the location, size and characteristics of the event.  Tsunamigenicity is determined after monitoring of relevant tide gauges by the NTFA and advice from GA. The BOM then sends that advice or warning to EMA’s National Emergency Management Coordination Centre.

 

On receipt of advice, EMA immediately notifies the operations centres of the relevant Australian State & Territory emergency management organisations which have responsibility for the provision of emergency services in Australia.  These responsibilities in Australia are based on State and Territory jurisdictions.  In addition to that notification process, tsunami advices and warnings are issued via the BOM network of regional offices to State and Territory Disaster Committees. The BOM is responsible for promulgating any public advices and warnings relevant to the event.

 

These State and Territory-based agencies act on advice from the G3 as to the status and extent of any continuing tsunami hazard associated with an event.  They manage as appropriate, the threat or actual impact of the tsunami hazard.  In the event that State resources are overwhelmed, Australian Government resources can be requested through EMA in accordance with well practised disaster plans.

 

In the event of a tsunami impacting on a country in Australian’s region of interest, a request for Australian assistance can be made through the Australian international aid agency, AusAID, with delivery coordinated by EMA.

 

5.         Distant Tsunami Procedures.

Pacific Ocean

The Bureau of Meteorology is the main civilian contact point for tsunami advices and warnings originated by the PTWC, and distributes them to a range of organisations including response agencies such as emergency services groups.  The Australian Defence Department also receives these advices and has its own internal procedures.

 

Initial detection of a seismic event is provided by GA, which advises BOM and the NTFA. Currently the PTWC provides estimated travel times to Australia’s Pacific coastlines but not detailed predictions of run-up conditions.  Given the very large Australian coastline this is to be expected.  Advice from the NTFA, based on hydrodynamic modelling, would be sought to provide guidance as to the most vulnerable areas and potential run-up heights and impacts. 

 

The PTWC advices provide confirmation of tsunamigenicty of the event, although NTFA would also become involved in detecting sea level response from gauges in the region, eg. from the South Pacific tide gauge network.

 

The BOM is responsible for promulgating any public advices and warnings relevant to the event.

 

Indian Ocean

In the state of Western Australia, which strictly lies outside the geographic scope of ITSU, the arrangements described above are formalised in operational procedures for tsunamis originating in the eastern Indian Ocean basin.  National procedures are moving towards a system based on “Alerts” rather than “Warnings”, given the lack of monitoring and warning infrastructure in eastern Indian Ocean basin countries, and underdeveloped scientific decision support more generally.  Note that Australia wishes to formally explore further with the ICG the suggestion put to ITSU-XIII, that the scope of operations of ITSU be extended to the Indian Ocean as a matter of high priority.  To this end a discussion paper has been submitted under Agenda Item 6.3.  In particular, Australia seeks ITSU’s facilitation of the intergovernmental arrangements and cooperation required amongst those countries neighbouring Australia’s maritime north-west, which would be an essential factor underpinning the success of any sub-regional tsunami warning arrangements.

 

The BOM is responsible for promulgating any public advices and warnings relevant to the event.

  

6.         National Sea Level Network. 

 


Location

Latitude

Longitude

Date installed

Cocos Islands (Australian Territory)

12° 12’S

098° 88’E

Sep 1992

Groote Eylandt

13° 50’S

136° 30’E

Sep 1993

Darwin

12° 28’S

130° 51’E

May 1990

Broome

18° 00’S

122° 13’E

Nov 1991

Hillarys

31° 49’S

115° 44’E

Nov 1991

Esperance

33° 52’S

121° 54’E

Mar 1992

Thevenard

32° 09’S

133° 39’E

May 1992

Port Stanvac

35° 07’S

138° 28’E

Jun 1992

Portland

38° 21’S

141° 37’E

Jul 1991

Lorne

38° 30’S

143° 59’E

Jan 1993

Stony Point

38° 22’S

145° 13’E

Jan 1993

Burnie

41° 03’S

145° 57’E

Sep 1992

Spring Bay

42° 33’S

147° 56’E

May 1991

Port Kembla

34° 29’S

150° 55’E

Jul 1991

Rosslyn Bay

23° 09’S

150° 47’E

Jun 1992

Cape Ferguson

19° 17’E

147° 03’E

Sep 1991

 

The tide gauges in this network are SEAFRAME gauges, using Sutron 9000 Remote Terminal Units, having five sensors:

 

·         primary water level sensor (the Bartex “Aquatrak” acoustic-in-air sensor);

·         wind speed, direction and maximum hourly gust;

·         air temperature;

·         sea water temperature; and,

·         atmospheric pressure.

 

A sixth channel contains data from the backup Sutron 8200 data logger unit.

 

7.         Information on Tsunami occurrences.  

 

There have not been any significant tsunami occurrences in Australia during the inter-sessional period. 

SUMMARY

 

The main focus of activity in Australia during the recent inter-sessional period has been on organizing tsunami services in light of changing organizational requirements and structures, and the partially implemented plans to develop the Australian Tsunami Alert Service (ATAS).  The ATAS is to be co-managed by the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), Geoscience Austrlia (GA) and Emergency management Australia (EMA), with the support of the National Tidal Facility Australia (NTFA). Two key factors in this regard are changes to sea level monitoring and tidal prediction activities and the establishment of a major oceanographic services initiative.  

 

The proposed transition of the NTFA to a new National Tidal Centre (NTC), will better support the development of national operational tsunami warning activities. The proposed NTC would subsume the functions and responsibilities of the NTFA and would run under the aegis of an existing operational agency of the Australian federal government.  The proposal is subject to funding and approval by government.  

 

The BOM has established an Oceanographic Services Program, to foster the development of ocean services to the community.  The new Program is a major commitment, paralleling the Weather Services Program which has delivered a very large range of weather services to the community over many decades.  It now has management responsibilities for operational tsunami services.  The increased focus and attention on these services will better facilitate the development of plans for an ATAS. 

 

Australia has adopted a two stage approach to developing its tsunami warning systems, involving the initial development of the ATAS and the longer term objective of a more fully established warning system.  Plans have been partially implemented, on the Australian western coasts, and informally in Australia’s Pacific coastal areas.  Plans further focus on:

 

·         Consolidation of operational tsunami alert activities involving BOM, GA and NTFA/NTC for all coastal regions;

·         Recapitalisation and review of observing networks for detecting tsunamis in Australia;

·         Development of decision support for run-up prediction;

·         Development of public awareness and education material on the tsunami hazard in Australia;

·         Development of a broader tsunami mitigation strategy with other key national stakeholders or potentially interested participants.

 

Australia is also interested in jointly exploring partnerships with other national agencies in the region to further common tsunami warning objectives, and with ITSU in particular in the nearby areas of the Indian Ocean basin.  

 

NARRATIVE

 

The main focus of activity in Australia during the recent inter-sessional period has been on organizing tsunami services in light of changing organizational requirements and structures, and the partially implemented plans to develop the Australian Tsunami Alert Service (ATAS).

 

A considerable effort has been expended by agencies of the Australian federal government to resolve difficulties which have arisen for the continued operation of the National Tidal Facility Australia (NTFA).  The NTFA was established as an arm of the Flinders University of South Australia and was designated as the national tidal organization in 1989.  The University has decided that it no longer intends to support the operations of the Facility.  The Steering Committee, which oversees the activities of the NTFA, has developed plans for transitioning the management and operations of the Facility within the Australian government framework. Whilst the plans have not been completely resolved, the proposal to establish a new National Tidal Centre (NTC) within the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) may be approved for implementation later in 2003.  The NTC would subsume the functions and activities of the NTFA.  The proposal is subject to funding and government approval. Following ITSU-XIX interested parties should consult the Director of the NTF or the Oceanographic Services Program Manager in the Bureau for further information in this regard.

 

The NTFA plays a significant role in monitoring tsunamis in the Australian region, and has built up key expertise in the area of tsunami modelling for predictive applications.  Its existing operating environment, as an arm of the University, has proved to have been a major impediment to its active collaboration on public good projects such as the planned ATAS, especially in an operational context.  Under the proposed new arrangements involving the NTC, the coupling of existing NTF expertise, know-how and systems with the operational activities of the BOM and Geoscience Australia (GA) should provide a seamless and effective sea level monitoring system which will be beneficial to the overall development of tsunami services. 

 

The BOM has recently established an Oceanographic Services Program, which is a major new commitment to a program to develop ocean services comparable in scope to the weather services that have been developed and provided to the community over the last 100 years or so.  The new Program is responsible for developing national tsunami warning services.  This new focus of effort on tsunami activities will better facilitate the development of operational alert or warning capabilities, and the development of skills and expertise for putting in place necessary infrastructure, systems and decision support. National tsunami warning arrangements are in place for the western coasts of Australia, which fall outside the remit of ITSU.  These arrangements will be reassessed in light of plans to initially develop the ATAS as part of a staged approach to establishment of a fully fledged warning system and future arrangements concerning NTFA.  While the PTWC provides warning advices for Australia’s Pacific coastlines, the intention is to develop expertise to supplement PTWC guidance especially with real-time run-up forecasts and possibly inundation estimates.  In brief plans entail:

 

·         Consolidation of operational tsunami alert activities involving BOM, GA and NTFA/NTC for all coastal regions;

·         Recapitalisation and review of observing networks for detecting tsunamis in Australia;

·         Development of decision support for run-up prediction;

·         Development of public awareness and education material on the tsunami hazard in Australia;

·         Development of a broader tsunami mitigation strategy with other key national stakeholders or potentially interested participants.

 

Australia is also interested in jointly exploring partnerships with other national agencies in the region to further common tsunami warning objectives, and with ITSU in particular in the nearby areas of the Indian Ocean basin.  

 

 

Date:    19 September 2003

Name:  Phil Parker, Acting Superintendent

Public Weather, Marine Weather and Oceanographic Services Program 

 

 

 



[1] These details may change during the latter part of 2003, following reorganization of national arrangements for operating sea level and tide prediction services. 

[2] These details may change during the latter part of 2003, following reorganization of national arrangements for operating sea level and tide prediction services.  Plans to establish a new National Tidal Centre (NTC) to incorporate the functions of the NTFA were pending governmental approval at the time this report was prepared. 


National Report of Chile

 

ITSU-XIX

INTERSESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

 

NATIONAL REPORT OF CHILE

 

 

 

BASIC INFORMATION

 

Note:  Telephone numbers starting with 9 (after the country code 56) are   emergency mobile phones and can be reached at any time during non-office hours.

 

1.         ICG/ITSU National Contact:

           

Captain Fernando Mingram López

Director

Servicio Hidrográfico y Oceanográfico de la Armada de Chile (SHOA)

Adddress: Errázuriz 232, Playa Ancha - Valparaíso, CHILE

Phone:      (56) 32-266555 / (56) 9-3241113

Fax:           (56) 32- 266542

e-mail:       This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

2.         Primary Warning Recipient:

 

Tsunami Program (TWS)

Department of Oceanography

Servicio Hidrográfico y Oceanográfico de la Armada de Chile (SHOA)

Adddress: Errázuriz 232, Playa Ancha - Valparaíso, CHILE

Phone:      (56) 32-266681 / (56) 9-3244268 / (56) 9-3249976

Fax:           (56) 32- 266542

e-mail:       This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Head, Department of Oceanography

Servicio Hidrográfico y Oceanográfico de la Armada de Chile (SHOA)

Address:    Errázuriz 232, Playa Ancha - Valparaíso, CHILE

Phone:      (56) 32-266670 / (56) 9-3240212 Office

                              (56) 32-669346 Home

e-mail:       This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

3.         Tsunami Advisors:

 

Regional Emergency Office (OREMI)

Phone:      (56) 32-252296 / (56) 9-3242414

           

National Emergency Office (ONEMI)

Address:  Beaucheff 1637, Santiago

Phone:     (56) 2-6718333 / (56) 9-2324007

Fax:        (56) 2-6894094

            e-mail:    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.        

 

Emergency Management:

 

The National Emergency Office through its local Emergency Committee is in charge of the tsunami mitigation procedures.

 

4.         Local Tsunami Procedures:

 

SHOA is operating 24 hours per day, 7 days per week and has the responsibility to identify and characterize events that have the potential to generate local tsunami with the help of a TREMORS station and the Seismological Service of the University of Chile. The threshold for declaring a potential local tsunami emergency is a magnitude Ms 7.5 or a seismic moment of 5x1021 N.m. This information is sent to ONEMI also operating on a 24 hours per day basis and all the Navy authorities under high priority messages. They act locally in coordination to deal with the emergency.

 

The emergency situation is terminated when SHOA detects no sea level anomalies at the near-field mareographic stations. SHOA issue a tsunami bulletin: “tsunami warning or tsunami watch is cancelled”.

 

5.         Distant Tsunami Procedures:

 

The organization that identifies and characterizes tsunamigenic events from a distant source is SHOA. SHOA receive all messages from PTWC. Furthermore is able to get seismic moment data coming from the broadband station ELRO (TREMORS system) and location information from several sources through e-mail and web pages, seismic data coming from NEIC, PTWC bulletins, and monitors sea level data of the islands stations where any distant tsunami is recorded before reaching mainland Chile. If the recorded tsunami waves have amplitudes of 2 meters or more, a Tsunami Warning is transmitted including arrival times to the coast using the Tsunami Travel Time software.

 

The information provided by PTWC is immediately routed to ONEMI and Maritime (Naval) Authorities who will start operating at a local level if a tsunami watch or warning is declared by the national TWS.

 

6.         Sea Level Stations

 

 

Station

Latitude ºS

Longitude ºW

 

Arica

 

18º 29'

 

70º 19'

Iquique

20º 13'

70º 10'

Antofagasta

23º 39'

70º 25'

I.San Felix

26º 16'

80º  07'

Caldera

27º 04'

70º 50'

I. Pascua

27º 09'

109º 27'

Coquimbo

29º 56'

71º 21'

Valparaiso

33º 02'

71º 38'

San Antonio

33º 35'

71º 38'

I.J.Fernández

33º 37'

78º 50'

Talcahuano

36º 41'

73º 06'

Corral

39º 52'

73º 26'

P. Montt

41º 29'

72º 58'

Ancud

41º 52'

73º 51'

P. Chacabuco

45º 28'

72º 50'

I. San Pedro

47º 43'

74º 54'

P. Arenas

53º 10'

70º 54'

P. Williams

54º 56'

67º 37'

 

 

 

 

All station are Vaisala 555 C platforms

 

7.         There was not information on tsunami occurrences during the period

 

 

SUMMARY

 

 

During the period significant improvements have been made to address tsunami risk in three general areas:

 

(1)    improvement in seismic and tide data acquisition,

(2)    heightened public awareness of the tsunami threat and

(3)    improvement in communications.

 

1.1.            Seismic data acquisition:

Approximately 60 seismic stations are run by different universities around the country. Most of them are linked via radio telemetry, Internet, or modem to a central analysis office where earthquake location and magnitude can be retrieved. However, since this a university system, it does not operate after working hours. Recognizing the need for a prompt and reliable source of seismic data, SHOA received funds in 1995 to install a TREMORS broad band station inland from Valparaíso, that provides estimates of the epicenter and seismic moment in real time. Additionally, a computer continuously receives hypocentral information from earthquakes around the globe from different sources.

 

1.2.            Tide data acquisition:

The old mechanical and bubbler gauges, some of them operating since 1942, started being replaced in 1985 with satellite data collection platforms, with help from the U.S. National Weather Service, Pacific Region, and especially the support of the late NWS/PR Director Richard Hagemeyer. Data from these platforms are received in near-real time (delays up to a one-hour) at SHOA. A new project is under way to get sea level information from these DCP’s in real time through the Navy ’s communications system. Presently, there are 18 satellite sea level stations operating along the Chilean coast. During 2003, a DART System buoy will be deployed off the northern coast of Chile in order to improve the early tsunami warning capability in both Chile and the Pacific.

 

2.1.            Education efforts:

Since 1992, SHOA has been publishing educational textbooks on earthquakes and tsunamis with support from IOC. In addition, several tsunami pamphlets for the general public have been printed in Spanish, and English by SHOA, as “Tsunami: The Great Waves”, “Surviving a Tsunami: 11 lessons from the 1960 Chilean tsunami”, and the Tsunami Glossary.  In addition new colour versions of the educational textbooks for the first two educational levels and a new educational pamphlet called “The Infant buoy” have been published. Both can be found on the SHOA web page.

 

Several meetings with the community and local emergency managers have been organized by SHOA in order to explain the applications of the Tsunami Inundation Maps.

 

2.2.            Tsunami inundation maps:

The project, Processing Tsunami Inundation Maps for the Chilean Coast, which follows techniques of the TIME Modelling Project, has been funded since 1996. Twenty six maps were published before 2003, and three more are scheduled for production in 2003. These maps are given to the local authorities to aid them in developing their own community tsunami response procedures.

 

3.1.            Communications within the system:

Improved communications with PTWC and the U.S. West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center have been implemented through the use of an e-mail address dedicated exclusively to receiving tsunami messages. Also, since 1999, regular tsunami test exercises are performed with the Peruvian Dirección de Hidrografia y Navegación de la Marina de Guerra and the local sea level network. To ensure greater redundancy in the communication system, in 1998, Chile installed a terminal of the U.S. operated communications system Emergency Managers Weather Information Network (EMWIN), which provides various emergency management data, including tsunami watches and warnings from PTWC through the GOES satellite system.

 

3.2.            Communications with the public:

The National Emergency Office of the Ministry of Interior (ONEMI) is responsible for disseminating Tsunami Watches and Warnings to the general public and the media. SHOA and ONEMI are linked by VHF and HF radios, in addition to the common communication systems. ONEMI and SHOA also work on a 24 hours basis monitoring any and all emergencies occurring in the country through these radio links.

 

4.                  International Cooperation:

 

After a request from Colombia and Ecuador and in behalf of the agreement celebrated at ICG/ITSU-XVIII, which included the visit of a tsunami consultant from Chile, Mr. Emilio Lorca, Head of the Marine Geophysics Section from SHOA, was sent to Tumaco, Colombia and Guayaquil, Ecuador, in August 2002, funded by IOC and the Colombia and Ecuador Navies, in order to assist with the development of a “National Tsunami Plan”.

 

During June,2003 an Hemispheric Consultation on Early Warning took place in Antigua, Guatemala, as part of the preparations leading the Second International Early warning Conference (EWCII) which will take place in Bonn, Germany,15-19 October 2003. The objective of this regional consultation was to identify existing early warning systems, responsible persons/organizations, as well as other relevant aspects of early warning systems such as financial aspects, cost of investment and sustainability. The tsunami aspects of early warning were covered by Dr. Laura Kong, Director ITIC and Mr. Emilio Lorca from SHOA, Chile, who were invited by the organizers, the Government of Germany under the auspices of the United Nations and promoted by the Inter-Agency Secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction and UNDP.

 

 

NARRATIVE

 

 

A.            DEVELOPMENTS OF THE NATIONAL TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM.

 

Tsunami Inundation Charts: Since 1997, after the TIME training course in Chile, The National TWS has been producing inundation charts of the main ports to help the Civil and Maritime Authorities to plan and mitigate the effects of a tsunami. During the period 2002-2003, eight charts have been produced under the project "Processing of Inundation Maps by Tsunamis for the Chilean Coast". The cities included in these charts are: Los Vilos, Constitución, Coronel, Lebu, Huasco, Quintero and Papudo.

                             

Publications: During the period several publications have been distributed and others edited as follows:

 

Maremoto del 22 de mayo de 1960 en las Costas de Chile, 2ª. Edición, SHOA N°3012, 2000. (Tsunami of May 22th, 1960 along the coast of Chile)

 

Instrucciones Generales sobre el Sistema Nacional de Alarma de Maremotos, 4ª. Edición, SHOA N° 3203, 2000. (General Instructions about the National Tsunami Warning System).

 

Cómo sobrevivir a un tsunami. Once lecciones del tsunami ocurrido en el sur de Chile el 22 de mayo de 1960. SHOA, 2000. (How to survive a tsunami. Eleven lessons from de May 22, 1960 tsunami at southern Chile, from “Surviving a Tsunami – Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan, by the USGS). This publication can be found at SHOA web site: http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/descargas/descargas.php.

 

Tsunamis, Las Grandes Olas. Recently translated from the English version: Tsunami, The Great Waves. Will be distributed during the XIX Session. This publication can be found at SHOA web site: http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/descargas/descargas.php.

 

ITIC Web page: In cooperation with the Associated Director of ITIC who is permanently updating the ITIC web page, SHOA is incorporating to the page all the new publications:

 

Colored new version of “Earthquakes and Tsunamis, pre-elementary school textbook”, in Spanish.

 

Colored new version of “ I invite you to know the Earth I” in Spanish.

 

The Tsunami Glossary, in English and Spanish.

 

The Infant Buoy, animated in Spanish.

 

Instrumental and technical developments.

 

In order to give the tsunami early warning capability to the NTWS, a DART buoy system will be deployed in front of the northern coast of Chile where it is recognized a big seismic gap. This system will be deployed with the help from PMEL and NDBC on board of the R/V Roger Revelle, in November 2003.

 

B.            EXPERIENCES IN THE OPERATION OF THE TWS

 

Communication tests: once every other month a tsunami dummy exercise is performed with all the tide gauge stations.

 

Periodically communication tests with Peru´s Dirección de Hidrografía y Navegación are performed in order to improve the response of both national systems.

 

Tsunami Watches and Warnings: No tsunami watches or warnings were declared during the period.

 

C.            MEETINGS, SEMINARS, WORKSHOPS AND OTHERS:

 

VII International Congress “Earth Sciences 2002”: This congress organized by the Military Geographical Institute was held on 7-11 August, 2002 in Santiago, Chile. One special session was dedicated to present papers related to the Peruvian 2001 tsunami earthquake, June 23. Dr. Viacheslav K. Gusiakov and Dr. Salvador Farreras were special guests and also presented a related paper.

 

Several seminars have been carried out with the communities of Arica and of the coastal communes of the central Chilean region in that the National Tsunami Warning System operation and the application of the flood maps has been explained.

 

D.            FUTURE PLANS

 

Tsunami Inundation Charts: During 2004 new maps will be edited for Taltal, Ancud and San Vicente. With the edition of these maps the project CITSU will be finished.

 

Improvements of the tide data collection: data coming from the satellite tide gauge stations still are transmitted every hour. As it is known, this time delay is too long to get information during a near-field tsunami. This time lag can be improved if data from the tide stations could be capture in real time through a telephone modem. Dedicated lines from the Navy will be used for this purpose.

 

Protections against lighting are being installed to protect the site where the TREMORS broadband station is operating. Several times in the past the operations of the station was stopped by destruction on GPS and transmitters. This winter no problem has arise from the frequent storms in the area.

 

 

 

VALPARAISO, July 2003

Emilio Lorca



National Report of Colombia

 ICG-ITSU XIX

 

NATIONAL REPORT,  República de Colombia 

 

BASIC INFORMATION

 


ICG/ITSU National Contact:

 

Name:      Prof. Hansjürgen Meyer

Organization: Observatorio Sismológico del Suroccidente – OSSO (Universidad del Valle)

Postal Address: A. Aéreo 25360, CALI - Colombia

E-mail Address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Telephone Number: (+57-2) 330 1661, (+57-2) 339722

Fax Number: (+57-2) 3313418

Cellular phone: (+310) 464 5291

 

Primary Warning Recipient.  (Person, Agency or Organization with primary responsibility receiving and acting upon messages issued by PTWC).

 

Name: Prof. Hansjürgen Meyer

Responsible Organization: Observatorio Sismológico del Suroccidente – OSSO (Universidad del Valle)

Postal Address: A. Aéreo 25360

E-mail Address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Emergency Telephone Number: (+57-2) 3397222, (+57-2) 3301661, (+57-2) 3156520

Emergency Fax Number: (+57-2) 3313418, (+57-2) 3326016, (+57-2) 3156520

Emergency Cellular phone:   (310) 4645291   [PTWC/ATWC messages via E-Mail are relayed automatically to 5 cellular phones of OSSO staff]

 

Tsunami Advisor(s). (Person, Committee or Agency managing Tsunami mitigation)

 

Name: Comité Técnico Nacional de Tsunami (Comisión Colombiana del Océano) – Dirección General para la Prevención y Atención de Desastres (Ministerio del Interior)

Postal Address: Transversal 41 No. 27-50 piso 4º CAN – Bogotá D.C.

Email Address:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Emergency Telephone Number:  (+57-1) 2220449 / 36 / 21

Emergency Fax Number:  (+57-1) 2220416

Emergency Cellular phone:

 

 

Local Tsunami Procedures.   (if a local tsunami hazard exists)

 

·What organization identifies and characterizes tsunamigenic  events in the immediate source area?   OSSO (detection/warning system – based on TREMORS - in development)

·What is the threshold for declaring a potential local tsunami emergency? The available time between a seismic event and the arrival of tsunami wave to the nineteen villages located in Tumaco Bay is 30 to 40 minutes.  In the Buenaventura Bay is between 65 and 90 minutes.

·What organization acts on the information provided by the agency responsible for characterizing the potential local tsunami threat? CLOPAD (Comité Local de Prevención y Atención de Desastres) is the organization that acts in each case, presided by municipal mayor.  In the case of tsunami in Tumaco, the CCCP (Centro Control Contaminación del Pacífico)  acts as other member of CLOPAD, supplying the information to the mayor.

·How is the emergency situation terminated? The emergency situation is finished between 4 to 6 hours after to be occurred the earthquake, according to Local Emergency and Contingency Plan.

 

5.         Distant Tsunami Procedures. (when distant tsunami hazard exists)

 

·What organization becomes aware of tsunamigenic events from a distant source?  OSSO

·What action does this organization take with regard to tsunamigenic events from a distant source?

- Only PTWC/ATWC messages demanding action are evaluated.

- As backup to PTWC messaging, EMSC and NEIC are continuously monitored (and relayed via E-Mail to 5 cellular phone of OSSO staff) for large and shallow events in Pacific.

- Evaluation takes into account source location, depth and magnitude (checked with EMSC and NEIC), historic information numerical models (TIME) for various source regions, tide-level reports from intermediate sites (Galápagos etc.), information via telephone from along-path services, etc.

- Evaluation results are communicated via phone/fax and bulletin to >40 authorities and organisms with responsibilities.

- Mass media are contacted directly in case they received info from elsewhere and are generating news.

·What are the criteria for initiation tsunami mitigation procedures?

Reasonable evidence for probable dangerous wave heights, from numerical modeling and distant tidal levels (there is no history of distant-source tsunami waves on Colombia's Pacific coast)

·What actions were taken in response to warnings issued by PTWC during the intersessional period? Only one watch (01/21/2002 Michoacán, México event; danger for Colombian coast was found to be null, based on historic information and event depth (EMSC); a bulletin was issued to all listed Colombian organisms.

 

National Sea Level Network.  (Please include a table with position and description  of station/sensors).

 

IDEAM (Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales) is responsible of this information. The mareograph installed in the Jetty of the Port Society of Tumaco is maintained and verified by the CCCP and it has access to the information thanks to agreement subscribed with IDEAM.

 

The stations on the Pacific are[1]:

 

 

CODIGO

CAT

NOMBRE

CORRIENTE

GRA

MIN

LAT

GRA

MIN

LON

ELEVA

ENT_O

A_OP

FECHA_INS

5103901

MM

TUMACO

PACIFICO

1

50

N

78

44

W

0

1

7

15/09/51

5311901

MM

BUENAVENTURA

PACIFICO

3

54

N

77

5

W

0

1

9

15/05/41

 

 

CODIGO

CAT

NOMBRE

ACTUALIZAC

LATITUD

LONGITUD

X_COORD

Y_COORD

 

 

5103901

MM

TUMACO

08/02/02

1,833333333

-78,733333333

481784,36771

694852,38673

 

5311901

MM

BUENAVENTURA

08/02/02

3,900000000

-77,083333333

666387,14362

923299,24863

 

6.Information on Tsunami occurrences.  (Please include records, pictures, etc.)

The most recent disastrous event (Dec. 12, 1979) occurred on the coasts of the southernmost province (Nariño), due to a very large local earthquake in the subduction zone. Detailed account in Herd, D.G., T.L. Youd, Hj. Meyer, J.L. Arango, W.J. Pearson, C. Mendoza,  (1981). "The Great  Tumaco, Colombia Earthquake of 12 December 1979." Science, vol 211, no. 4481.

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY


(Brief statement of no more than one page addressing all items discussed in the Narrative section of the National Report, to be published in the ITIC Tsunami Newsletter and website.)

 

 

Actually there are many actions that have been implemented in the country with the purpose to better understand the effects of a tsunami occurred on Colombian Pacifica Coast especially in the area of Tumaco Bay, this place  is determined as elevated risk in the country, not alone for it’s near to the area of possible generation, but the plane character and low territory, the high population density located on low tide areas and non earthquake resistance characteristics of totally of it’s constructions, that are palafitic predominance.

 

Inside of relevant activities realized we can mentioned the realization of studies like that  of Social Vulnerability of Tumaco, the physical vulnerability, tsunami generated for flooding and the liquefaction that make possible to establish the safe areas in Tumaco, for this way to determine the approach basics to formulate de evacuation plan.  In the area of studies, also it’s important to mention the works carried out by CCCP to evaluate the floods that would be generated in Salahonda and Buenaventura populations, in accordance with several possible stages  where the event is generated  and tide conditions that allow to know the high elevation of prospective wave, the time of arrival and the areas that wouldn’t be affected by the phenomenon.  There are several seminars that have been carried out to incorporate the knowledges to community, as the seminar carried out to incorporate the vulnerability of risk into Territorial Ordenance Plans, other was realized to teach the teachers about the Emergency School Plans, and other was celebrated with representatives of 4 coastal municipalities of Nariño participation, about the formulation of Emergency and Contingency Plans.  Inside of these events is important to stand out the one carried out with support of COI and DIMAR, thanks to recommendation made in the XVIII Session of ITSU for a Chilean expert to assist it with the purpose to conduct the Local Emergency Committee of Tumaco respect to determine the approach basics for formulate the Emergency Plan.

 

Significantly  in the area of plans we have been advanced, and by the date of meeting will have the Emergency Plan and Contingency Plan for tsunami of Tumaco, that not only determine the evacuation places, but also the routes equipment and available materials and arrangements of responsible institutions to attend the emergency.  These documents will be used as a reference to apply them to other coastal municipalities.  Refers to area of knowledge divulgation and socialization of the same one was carried out an exercise with 16 schools of Tumaco, finished the instruction about the prevention and attention of disasters, the Emergency School Plan of each school was made by the facilitators in the topic of tsunami, which was started by simulacrums and we are scheduled for the second semester of this year to carry out an exercise with all participants.

 

NARRATIVE

 


(Detailed description  of innovations or modifications to National tsunami warnings procedures or operations since last National Report.  Tsunami research projects on mitigation, as well as public education programmes or other measures taken to heighten awareness of the tsunami hazard and risk.)

 

During the present period there are many actions that was implemented in the country with the purpose to understand the effects of tsunami on Pacific Coast, especially in Tumaco Bay, this point is determined as a high risk place in the country, not alone for it’s proximity to the are of possible generation, but for the plane character and low territory, the high population density located on low tide areas and non earthquake resistance characteristics of all constructions, which are palafitic predominance.

 

 

There are some relevant activities:

 

  • Develop new tsunamis research or similar topics.
  • Seminaries of workshops
  • Formulate the plans
  • Education
  • Socialization of plans
  • Incorporation of tsunamis information with other initiatives.

 

1.  New tsunamis research or similar topics

 

The University of Cauca carried out a study on the population social vulnerability in Tumaco, the most important contributions are:

 

  • There is high percentage of population that doesn’t know what to do in case of tsunami.
  • 70% of population reveals that they don’t know the Disaster Prevention System, neither to have received instruction on tsunami.
  • The migration increased the population and risks.
  • Relevance to include the community leaders in the socialization process.

 

During the present year OSSO realized a study of physical vulnerability that showed:

 

  • There are many essential buildings that don’t have earthquake resistance conditions.
  • High vulnerability of public services
  • Poor conditions of the organizations that should assist the emergency like firemen, civil defense and red cruise.

 

We are waiting the final report of this project.

 

INGEOMINAS presented a study of liquefaction in the area of Tumaco, it compiled information on that happened during the tsunami occurred in 1979, and dates of filling made in the islands and measures made with seismic cone. Finally some areas were determined with potentially damages in future cases.

 

The CCCP presented flood maps in the event of tsunami for more probably seism stages in the next 50 years (information given by OSSO and INGEOMINAS).  This stages considered many tides levels and presented several degrees of inundation.  Also the CCCP made inundation maps of municipalities of Salahonda and Buenaventura, where was determined the arrival time of tsunami and quantity of population that would be affected.

 

With base in the previous studies, events were promoted to use this information to do the Territorial Ordinance Plan of Tumaco, like the elaboration of basic criterions to formulate the Emergency and Contingency Tsunami Plan.  The DGPAD has given the results of mentioned research to mayor of Tumaco to be incorporated in different actions of the municipality.

 

Actually the CCCP is realizing investigations about viability to regenerate the Guamo Island to use it as element of protection in Tumaco.  This island has disappeared two occasions in 1906 and 1979, the tsunamis of these times disappeared the island, but the impact on the Tumaco islands it has been smaller.  The decrease of height of tsunami and the flooded areas already have demonstrated, in this moment we are establishing the balance form in plant and profile that should have the island to ensure the maximum protection to the population, also the CCCP is verifying the consequences that this island would have on the navigation channel and the line of actual coast, as well as the possible environmental impact.

 

On the other hand the CCCP will be programmed to repeat the experience realized in Tumaco, in other places located along to Nariño coast, it has been worked in a proposal to use LIDAR sensors, that are installed in a plane with the object to obtain precision information and with high resolution of the coastal fringe between 0 and 10 meters (zero it’s the level of low tides).  The above mentioned will allow to have the information required to do numerical model of TIME.  Today the necessary financing has not been achieved to obtain dates of LIDAR.

 

2.  Seminars or Tsunami workshops

 

During this period was carried out several events in Tumaco (area determined as that more risk in the event of tsunami) some of them are:

 

November 2001: Workshop to formulate Tumaco’s Contingency Plan, organized by Colombian Civil Defense and the CCCP.

 

July 2002:  Workshop organized by the Develop Minister to incorporate the variability of risk in the Territorial Plans of Ordenance.

 

August 22:  Seminary of “Initiative to consolidate a local system of answer in the event of tsunami in Tumaco” organized by CCCP and the assistance of the expert Chilean Emilio Lorca, whose attendance was requested to XVIII ITSU and supported by COI and the Oceanographic and Hidrographic Service of the Navy of Chile.  This event is the relevant importance because in this opportunity the members of Emergency Local Committee participated and several of National Tsunami Committee, also the national experts participated in the topic of Disasters.  This is the first forum in which all the available information was examined up to date, and defined several critical aspects of the Contingency Plan for the municipality, many of them changed the population’s paradigms, as the relevant of sirens for alarm, the bridge Pindo as unique evasion route, concentration in the topic of wave.  In general there was a negative vision of the situation that conducted to panic and not to search solutions.

 

October 2002:  Workshop on building the Emergency School Plans for the municipalities of Nariño Coast, dictated by Civil Defense and logistically supported by CCCP.

 

Besides the Above mentioned the available information has been presented about topic in the meetings of National Technical Tsunami Committee of Colombian Commission of the Ocean, also in meetings of General Direction of Attention and Prevention of Disasters, and it was presented in the Vice presidency of republic.

 

3.  Formulation of Plans

 

In the area of the plans also it has been advanced significantly although it’s important to recognize that not in accordance with quantity of efforts made for several participant entities, especially some of them are technical order as the CCCP, who has assumed the guide of several processes in the face of absence or a real commitment of the public administration of municipality.  This situation is justified for the political joint of municipality, which has caused the election of 43 mayors in the last year.  This situation was solved in April/2003, and although it hasn’t improved a lot in real terms, if one has a more permanent interlocutor proceeding of municipality and the mayor has assumed commitments to return the thematic.

 

The above mentioned has caused that the Emergency and Contingency Plan of Tumaco isn’t real in the moment (June 2003), in spite of having the defined all basic lineaments, the required cartography and the great quantity of inputs.  This is a similar situation happens with the National Contingency of Tsunami Plan, where the problem it doesn’t the uncertainty of municipal administration, but the intermittence of the activities of participant entities, but principally it lack a visible head of the process to conduct the other ones, for what many things stay in good intentions but not specific advances. Today the advance of each one of these documents is:

 

National Contingency Plan for Tsunami                            60%

Emergency Local Plan of Tumaco                                   70%

Contingency Local Plan of Tumaco                                  40%

 

According to CCCP these percents are subjective, and can change very quickly it it’s possible to contract a group of work to carry out exclusively this work (particularly both last).  If the expectations will be accomplish, the plans would be finished to August 2003.

 

One of the relevant points into National Plan that are pendent of discussion is the promptness dissemination of Alert and the convenience to use a monitory system of sea level like complement to TREMORS system, available in OSSO, also the responsibility of care this system.  Waiting that the invitation extended to visit Tsunami Centers of Alert in Hawaii, offers the necessary lights to formulate an effective recommendation for country, and it will be carried out at the beginning of August.

 

For the above mentioned it would be aspired to have the mentioned plans to the date of meeting, which it will be a very important advance on the topic.

 

4.  Education

 

In this aspect there are several efforts realized by CCCP, we can mentioned the following:

 

2001 to 2003: In the schools were dictated more than 60 presentations and also organized groups on tsunami and your effects in the population of Tumaco.

 

Attendance to Seminars to present the investigations results on tsunami, as:

 

April 2003:  Seminar of Sciences of the Sea in Santa Marta.

August 2003: International Course on Marine Geology, conference about tsunamis.

Elaboration of didactic material for different kinds of public as:

 

Interactive presentations in CD:                           Didactic 1 and Didactic 2

Powerpoint presentations about many

aspects of topic:                                                                        32

Game of billboards for schools without video

beam:                                                                                       5

Pedagogic activities designed and implemented:               12

Publication:                                                                               Hello Wave

 

5.  Socialization of Plans

 

Supplementing the education activities was carried out a program denominated “the seven steps”, which prepared facilitators of 16 Tumaco’s schools, then these programs were attended by aid entities (Civil Defense, Cruz Roja, Firemen, Hospital) and the CCCP, to make an analysis of risks of their respective schools and then elaborate the respective Emergency School Plans, with special emphasis to tsunami topics.  This exercise was carried out during four months.

 

The steps contemplated are:

 

  • Identify the formers in each school and creation of the emergency school committees.
  • Training the tsunami formers on emergencies management.
  • Realize the didactic material with support of participant teachers of this region.
  • Formulate the Emergency School Plans and Evacuation Plans in case of tsunami.
  • Integrate the plans to each other according to Municipal Plan.
  • Socialize the Plans into the school and exercises of simulacrum in the community.
  • Realize the simulacrums (first course, then school and finally at level of several schools).

 

The same exercise thought about in 4 phases: 

 

Phase I:  Basic Acknowledges (What’s tsunami, How is the Prevention and Attention of Disasters System, etc).

 

Phase II:  Operative acknowledges (First Aids, combat fires, what to do in case of earthquakes, etc).

 

Phase III: Elaboration of documents (Analysis of school risks, Emergency School Plans).

 

Phase IV:  Simulacrums

 

As a result so far (June 2003) there are six schools with Emergency School Plans, which have made partial simulacrums of verification.  It’s pending to apply the exercise of simulacrum for second period of 2003,  it contribute to  link the aid entities and other organisms of public administration related with the topic like government’s secretaries, education, traffic and transport and public works.

 

6.  Incorporation of tsunami information of other activities

 

Here it’s important to mention the following activities;

 

Contributions to the National Technical Committee of Tsunami, these have been centered in discussions on advances achieved in studies contributed by different entities, to coordinate actions between institutions and contributions to National Contingency Plan of Tsunami.

 

Participation on Territorial Ordinance Plan of Tumaco. The contribution has been verified that the risk for tsunami is incorporate, the information would be appropriately interpreted, and the proposed works would be according the risks.  Actually the CCCP is advising to Tumaco, controls the quality of works realized by consultant group hired to incorporate the variable of risks to POT.

 

Support fortify of CLOPAD.  The actions here are related with maintaining integrated the group, to guide processes in case of absence the coordinator of the municipality, to conduct resources for equipment, to present proposal as the signaling for Tumaco, to support logistically with information of building of PLEC, among others.

 

Actually

 

  • Acquisition of portable and fixed equipments of radio to establish the communication networks of CLOPAD in Tumaco, for value of $70 millions.
  • Acquisition of basic elements for firemen, Civil Defense and Red Cruise  for value of $400 millions.
  • Determine the design the warning signs for tsunamis that have account the international parameters.
  • Support cartographic of SIG for socialization plans.

 

 

 

Date:  July 1, 2003

Name: National Technical Tsunami Committee 

 



[1] Information suministred by IDEAM


National Report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea

UNESCO Delegates, DPR of Korea

Dear Comrades,

We are very pleased to send National Tsunami Report to ITCG/ITSU, UNESCO/IOC through UNESCO DELEGATES.


With Warm Regards,

State Hydro-meteorological Administration(SHMA), DPR of KOREA.


National report

Basic information


1. ITCG/ITSU National Contact:
Name: Mr. Jang Hyon Chol
Organization: officer, Dep.of External Relations , SHMA, DPRK
Postal Address: Central Meteorological Institute, SHMA, Oesong
                        Dong, Central District, Pyongyang, DPR of Korea
E-mail Address:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Telephone Number:850-2-321-4539
Fax Number:850-2-381-4410
Cellular phone:


2. Primary Warning Recipient:(Person, Agency or Organization with primary responsibility receiving and acting upon messages issued by PTWC)
Name: Mr. Ri Song Gun
Responsibility organization: Central Meteorological Institute, SHMA,
                                              DPR of Korea
Postal Address: Central Meteorological Institute, SHMA, Oesong
                        Dong, Central District, Pyongyang, DPR of Korea
E-mail Address:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Telephone Number:850-2-321-3125
Fax Number:850-2-381-4416
Cellular phone:


3. Tsunami Advisor:(Person, Committee or Agency managing Tsunami mitigation)
Name: Mr. O. Ryang Pyong
Postal Address: Central Meteorological Institute, SHMA, Oesong
                        Dong, Central District, Pyongyang, DPR of Korea
E-mail Address:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Telephone Number:850-2-321-2125
Fax Number:850-2-381-4410
Cellular phone:


4. Local Tsunami Procedures

¡¦ The Seismological Institute is responsible for estimating the position and the magnitude of an earthquake occurred in our seas and the surrounding water regions on the base of data from domestic earthquake monitoring network, and assessing the risk of the local tsunami.
.  Local tsunami waning is issued considering a threshold determined by the position and magnitude of the earthquake, the distance from the earthquake source to a relevant coastal water area, the coastal configurations and geological characteristics of sea bottom.
¡¦The issued tsunami warning is informed to the National or Local Natural Disaster Prevention Headquarter for mitigating hazards from natural disaster events including tsunami and storm surges and to the related agencies.


5. Distant Tsunami Procedures. (when distant tsunami hazard exists)

¡¦The Central Meteorological Institute(CMI) becomes aware of   tsunami-genic events from a distance source. The Institute receives the earthquake and tsunami information from PTWC through GTS.
¡¦Based on this information, a tsunami hazard assessment is given, considering the distance from the source to the relevant coastal areas of our country.
¡¦When the assessment indicates the tsunami warning criteria or threshold, the Institute issues the tsunami warning or messages to the relevant agencies.
¡¦For the local or distance tsunami hazard warning, a numerical tsunami models are used on the operational base. As a result of the tsunami model, the potential run-ups and inundation with time at the coastal areas of our country are obtained.
¡¦The criteria of the tsunami warning is the warning sea levels or risk sea levels being pre-determined at the corresponding places of the coastal areas in our country.
¡¦The CMI, SHMA had recently improved the system of communication network for correctly receiving in time and processing the telegram data of tsunami warning and information from PTWC, and developed a new numerical tsunami model to introduce into operational tsunami watch and prediction.


6. National Sea Level Network. (Please include a table with position and description of stations/sensors)


Station Position Sensor
1 Chongjin East Coast  Auto Sea Level Recorder
2 Wonsan  ¡® Auto Sea LevelRecorder 
3 Kosong  ¡® Coastal Sea Level Ruler
4 Nampo  West coast  Auto sea levelRecorder 
5 Haezu  ¡® Auto Sea Level    Recorder 
6 Monggumpo  ¡® Coastal Sea Level Ruler
 

In addition to these stations, we are also observing the sea level by mainly using rulers at the coastal marine meteorological stations such as Sonbong, Kimchak, Riwon,Kajin, Sinpo, Tongchon.


7. Information on Tsunami occurrences. (Please include records, pictures, etc.)

Recently, there were no significant tsunami events in the coastal areas of our country.


SUMMARY


The Tsunami Warning System in the DPR of Korea consists of the National Tsunami Warning Center, Tsunami Watch and Communication Networks, and the Headquarter for Protecting Tsunami Hazard.

The CMI, SHMA, as the National Tsunami Warning Center, issues storm surge and tsunami warning in the areas of our seas and informs the concerned agencies to take measures for protecting or mitigating surge hazard.

The earthquake watch network consists of coastal and inland earthquake stations, and the sea level network consists of coastal oceanography stations located at the major sports of the east and west coasts of our country.

Nowadays, we had improved the domestic tsunami information system to more rapidly receive and process the earthquake and sea level observation data from earthquake and sea level networks for enhancing the capability of the National Tsunami Warning System.

The communication network had been improved so that earthquake and sea level data could be transformed immediately into the Seismological Institute and the Communication Center for Meteorological Data at the Central Meteorological Institute.

 Also, The data correcting and processing programs have been improved to monitor the information from PTWC.

So, we are receiving the earthquake information or tsunami messages from PTWC on the regular operational base.

Recently, a study on tsunami and storm surge models was accomplished to improve the tsunami and storm surge waning capacities in our country. ¡ÈA tsunami calculation method in coastal water areas of our country¡É, which was newly studied and introduced to operational tsunami waning work, well describes the time and positions of tsunami occurrence, the run up and inundation at concerned positions in more detail than other tsunami prediction models. We are now using this model for tsunami prediction at corresponding coastal areas based on initial data of an earthquake occurred in water regions of our country at any time.

Research works on earthquake and tsunami characteristics are implemented systematically at the West Sea Oceanographic Institute of SHMA, the Department of Oceanography of Kim IL Song University and the Seismological Institute.      

In the future, the major concerns of the National committee for Oceanography and the National Tsunami Warning Center should pay to the following issues to improve the national capability for tsunami warning and   preventing and mitigating tsunami hazards;
¡¦ to improve observational and communication capacities of earthquake and sea level networks
¡¦ to develop a more sophisticated tsunami prediction models
¡¦ to strengthen the tsunami warning transmission system and to actively take activities for public awareness on the tsunami damages, which are necessary to make the more perfected measures against tsunami damages.       


Narrative


In our country, some measures have been taken for improving the capability of the national tsunami waning system;
¡¦The telephone and computer network for transmitting the information of tsunami events  have been equipped or supplied with some equipments so that the communication capacity between the Tsunami Waning Center and the Seismologic and sea level networks was strengthen.
¡¦The earthquake and tsunami monitoring and information system have been established between the national tsunami waning center and earthquake and tsunami communication center, by which the national tsunami waning center watches tsunami messages from PTWC at real time and assesses the criteria for issuing the tsunami warning.
¡¦The paper titled  ¡ÉA calculation method of tsunami in the coastal regions of our country ¡È, which was studied in recent years by the West Sea Oceanographic Institute of SHMA is used in operational works for tsunami.
This method has recognized more effective, more quickly and more detail than the previous one for measuring a tsunami magnitude, estimating its tsunami time history, predicting its damage on any major spot in the coastal plain of the Korean East Sea and West Sea and issuing warning.

¡¦There had been the meetings and discussions twice this year on information and research for protecting marine meteorological hazards such as tsunami, and measure to immigrate natural hazards between Kim IL Sung University, the Earthquake Institute and SHMA through the National Committee for Oceanography, and we had made work plans.
¡¦In order to raise the public awareness and concerns on natural hazards including tsunami, some of papers were issued on magazines and news, and introduced by means of the radio or television broadcast. Also, Talks on the tsunami risks and characters were made with local communities at potential tsunami hazards. 
¡¦We had made some of scientific and technological investigations and researches to consider tsunami risks in constructing coastal structures and developing coastal areas.


Date:   1 July 2003

Mr. O Ryang Pyong
ITCG / ITSU National Tsunami Advisor
The Central Meteorological Institute, SHMA, Pyongyang, DPR of Korea
  


 

National Report of Ecuador

NATIONAL REPORT OF THE REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR


BASIC INFORMATION

 

1.    ICG/ITSU National contact:

 

Name:                          Byron Sanmiguel Marín (INOCAR Director) /

Patricia Arreaga Vargas (INOCAR Tsunami Section)

 

Organization:                Oceanographic Institute of the Navy 

 

Postal Address:             Av. 25 of Julio Km 3 1/2, vía Pto. Marítimo-Guayaquil

REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR

 

E-mail Address:            This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Telephone Number:       (593)- 4 – 2481165, 2481105

Fax Number:                (593)- 4 - 2485166

Cellular phone:             

 

2.  Primary Warning Recipient, (Person, Agency or Organization with primary responsibility receiving and acting upon messages issued by PTWC)

 

Name:                          Byron Sanmiguel Marín (INOCAR Director) /

Patricia Arreaga Vargas (INOCAR Tsunami Section)

 

Responsible Organization: Oceanographic Institute of the Navy

 

Postal Address:             Av. 25 of Julio Km 31/2, via Pto. Marítimo 

REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR

 

E-mail Address:            This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Emergency Telephone Number: (593)- 4 – 2481300, 2481105

Emergency Fax Number: (593)- 4 - 2485166

Emergency Cellular phone:

 

3.  Tsunami Advisor(s). (Person, Committee or Agency managing Tsunami mitigation)

 

Name:                          Byron Sanmiguel Marín (INOCAR Director) /

Patricia Arreaga Vargas (INOCAR Tsunami Section)

 

Organization:                 Oceanographic Institute of the Navy

 

Postal Address: Av. 25 of Julio Km 31/2, via Pto. Marítimo 

REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR

 

E-mail Address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Telephone Number: (593)- 4 – 2481300, 2481105

Fax Number: (593)- 4 - 2485166

Cellular phone:

 

 

4. Local Tsunami Procedures. (if a local tsunami hazard exists)

 

What organization identifies and characterizes tsunamigenic events in the inmediate source area?

 

There is not a National Tsunamis Warning System in our country but when a local tsunami hazard exists the Oceanographic Institute of the Ecuadorian Navy identifies and characterizes this events, from the information provided by the Ecuadorian Geophysical Institute, this information is given from immediate source area.

 

The goals for the present year are to conform the Local Warning System from the flood risk maps. At this moment we have obtained an agreement between the Institute of Ecuadorian Geophysical Institute and INOCAR in order to be able to work of joint way, efficient and effective.

 

What is the threshold for declaring a potential local tsunami emergency?

 

Actually, there is not a threshold for declaring a potential local tsunami emergency. We have working in that since 2002, when the Group at ITSU-XVI  changed and approved the warning magnitude threshold (M=7.0 to M=7.5).

 

During the visit of Emilio Lorca we were looking for the possibility of establishing these thresholds.  We have begun from an pilot area that in this case is Esmeraldas, where we have actually begun to develop a tsunamis Mitigation Plan and the first step has been to make the city flood map.

      

What organization acts on the information provided by the agency responsible for characterizing the potential local tsunami threat?

 

Civil Defense together the Naval Force informs to the coastal civil authorities the possible that Tsunami occurrence in order to alert the civil population and to organize the evacuation in the riskiest flood areas.

 

A very important part of the process is accomplished by the Port Captaincies. They together the Civil Defense are in charge of keeping the population alert during Tsunami event occurrence.

 

How is the emergency situation terminated?

 

Civil Defense and Naval Force have been sending the necessary bulletins during  emergencies. Finally Captaincies and Civil Defense will give to population when alert situation ended.

 

5. Distant Tsunami Procedures.(when distant tsunami hazard exists)

 

What organization becomes aware of tsunamigenic events from a distant source?

 

INOCAR becomes aware of tsunamigenic events from a distant source.  

 

What action does this organization take with regard to tsunamigenic events from a distant source?

 

Once INOCAR receives the alert, this is retransmit by phone and other ways to Port Captaincies and Civil Defense Agencies in the coast. They will prepare population for arriving tsunami according to messages.

 

What are the criteria for initing tsunami mitigation procedures?

 

In generally, INOCAR receives messages from PTWC, but when INOCAR has received messages from other sources, these messages would to be investigated and confirmed with bulletins PTWC for giving the alert.

 

What actions were taken in response to warning issued by PTWC during the intersessional period?

 

During the intersesional period, INOCAR liked to improve this local warning system step by step. We have been beginning by developing a flooding map by tsunamis in Esmeraldas City.

 

In May of the 2002 INOCAR participated in The ITIC Visiting Experts Program in Honolulu, Hawaii. Later we have been supporting by ITIC to reproduce three types of bulletins designed for our Tsunamis National Prevention and Mitigation Program. Besides in February we have been supporting for our representative training in CICESE-Ensenada- Mexico that was in charge of Dr Modesto Ortiz.

 

At the moment we have been incorporating Tsunami inundation maps on local urban map of Esmeraldas with vertical resolution of 1-m showing the distribution of constructions and use of land, then we will develop an Mitigation Plan based on vulnerability to tsunami flooding found along Esmeraldas coast.

 

6. National Sea Level network.(Please include a table with position and description of stations/sensors).

 

The current net of tidal and meteorological stations that are administrated by the Oceanographic Institute of the Navy  (INOCAR) it is constituted by the following stations: 

 

PORT

LATITUDE 

LONGITUDE

TEAM

Limones

1° 15.0´N

78° 59.0´W

GS-98 (STEVENS)

San Lorenzo

1° 18.0´N

78° 50.0´W

GS-98 (STEVENS)

**Esmeraldas

0° 59.0´N

79° 39.0´W

AXSYS – SDI (STEVENS)

Bahía de Caráquez

0° 36.0´S

80° 25.0´W           

GS-98 (STEVENS)

Manta

0° 56.0´S

80° 43.0´W           

GS-98 (STEVENS)

** La Libertad

2° 13.0´S

80° 54.0´W           

AXSYS – SDI (STEVENS)

Data de Posorja

2° 42.0´ S

80° 15.0´W           

GS-98 (STEVENS)

Pto. Nuevo Guayaquil   

2° 16.0´S

79° 55.0´W

GS-98 (STEVENS)

Puná    

2° 44.0´S

79° 55.0´W

GS-98 (STEVENS)

Pto. Bolívar           

3° 16.0´

80° 00.0´W            

GS-98 (STEVENS)

* Isla Baltra          

0° 27.0 S

90° 17.0´W            

HANMAR - STEVENS/NOAA

* Isla Santa Cruz

0° 45.0´S

90° 17.0´W            

HANMAR – STEVENS/NOAA

* Platforms equipped with sensors of tides, of the NOAA 

**Automatized stations. Transmition in real time.

 

 

  7. Information on Tsunami occurrences. (Please include records, pictures, etc.)

 

 

SUMMARY

 

(Brief of no more than one page addressing all items discussed in the Narrative section of the National Report, to be publish in the ITIC Tsunami Newsletter and website)

 

Actually Ecuador doesn't has a Tsunamis Warning System, but it coordinates with the International System, the alerts emission. Oceanographic Institute of Ecuadorian Navy is responsible by receiving directly from PTWC and then it communicates to the Port Captaincies and Civil Defense Agencies. Together they have been charged for keeping the population alert during Tsunami event occurrence.

 

To develop our Local Warning System, we have been working very hard to establishing this and to establish suitable thresholds. In the course of this period, the Oceanographic Institute of the Navy has acquired new tide meters, to renovate all the stations. INOCAR has two automated stations, they are located in Esmeraldas and La Libertad. They have been transmitting the data in real time very well.

 

NARRATIVE

 

(Detailed description of innovations or modifications to National tsunami warnings procedures or operations since last National Report. Tsunami research projects on mitigation, as well as public education Programs or other measures taken to heighten awareness of the tsunami hazard and risk)

 

Since the last months of 2002 INOCAR has been developing a TSUNAMI PREVENTION AND MITIGATION PLAN FOR ESMERALDAS CITY PROJECT. Study Geographical Location is Esmeraldas city in northwest of Ecuador.

 

The main Objectives of the Project are:

·         Tsunamis Prevention and Mitigation Hazards, based in Flood maps elaboration using mathematical models and other methodologies.

·         In order to find Adequate Answers based in Formulate plans and execute education Programs for the population in order to efficiently respond before a tsunami and mitigate its effects.

·         Training to responsible authorities in required areas, Carry out evacuation exercises as fundamental part of the prevention programs.

·         Risk reduction based in Vulnerability studies and flood maps

Tsunamis Hazard Reduction in Esmeraldas City, safeguarding the population life, properties, and installed infrastructure in order to maintain the country socioeconomic development

 

Our Goals are:

·         Reduce the population affected by tsunamis, as well as the public infrastructure and facilities located in zones of high risk.

·         Educate population to be prepared before seismic events in a direct way in the risk cities, using educating  material, etc.

 

 

Results

 

During the first months person in charge for the project has obtained a training in the development of flood maps with ITIC and CICESE support.

 

The 12 December 1979 Colombia tsunami was simulated adequately as it was indicated by the comparison of the recorded and simulated tsunami and we found more vulnerable places in Esmeraldas.

 

Finally Tsunami inundation maps will be incorporated on local urban map of Esmeraldas with vertical high resolution. We thought to make these activities the last months at the present year.

 

 


National Report of France

National Report OF FRaNCE

 

 

BASIC INFORMATION                 

 

1. ICG/ITSU National Contact:

            Name:                          Schindelé François

            Organization:                Département Analyse Surveillance Environnement

            Postal Address:            BP 12 91680 BRUYERES LE CHATEL FRANCE

            E-mail Address:            This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Telephone Number:            (33) 1 69 26 50 63

            Fax Number:                       (33)  1 69 26 70 85

            Cellular Telephone:                   

 

2. Primary Warning Recipient

            Name:                          Reymond Dominique

Responsible Organization: Laboratoire de Géophysique (LDG/Pamatai)

            Postal Address:            BP 640 Papeete Tahiti Polynésie Française

            E-mail Address:            This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Emergency Tel. Number: (689) 82 80 25         

Emergency Fax Number: (689) 83 50 37

            Cellular Telephone:       

           

3. Tsunami Advisors

 

            Name:                          Direction de la Protection Civile

            Postal Address:

            E-mail Address:

            Emergency Tel. Number:

            Emergency Fax Number:

            Emergency Cell. Phone:

 

Name:                                      Centre Polynésien de Prévention des Tsunamis             

Postal Address: BP 640 Papeete Tahiti Polynésie Française

            E-mail Address:            This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Emergency Tel. Number:            (689) 82 80 25

            Emergency Fax Number:            (689) 83 50 37

            Emergency Cell. Phone: 

 

4. Local Tsunami Procedures

           

            The only local tsunami of very small occurrence are generated by cliff failure or submarine landslide. No local tsunami procedure are implemented

 

5. Distant Tsunami Procedures

 

What organization becomes aware of tsunamigenic events from a distant source:

 

The Centre Polynésien de Prévention des Tsunamis implemented by the LDG/Pamatai.

 

 

What actions does this organization take with regard to tsunamigenic events from a distant source?

 

An alert message with recommendations on the actions to be taken is sent to the Direction de la Protection Civile that informs the general public and the media.

 

 

What are the criteria for initiating tsunami mitigation procedures?

 

A color-code of warning which is a function of the time delay and seriousness of the danger, has been adopted to facilitate the progress of actions during real warning.

The seriousness of the danger is a function of 2 parameters :

-         the delays available (3,6,9 hours)

-         the event's magnitude, as established by the scalar seismic moment given by TREMORS system.

 

 

 

 

YELLOW

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warning at the Laboratory

Warning for Civil Defense, High authorities, State Governors, and  Territorial Government, but no action required immediately. Further evolution of the warning to depend on several parameters, including the earthquake's location, tide gauge readings, external information, and reports by PTWC or other warning centers. The warning can be cancelled at any time based on external information or other reports.

 

 

 

 

   Delay > 9 hours

   and Mm > 7.0

 

 

ORANGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warning of Civil Defense, City and Local Authorities and Municipalities, Police Headquarters, and other emergency responders, but a severe danger of tsunami has not been confirmed. The time delay is 6-9 hours before the tsunami arrival, and the population has not been informed of a possible evacuation.

 

 

 

   Delay > 6 hours

   and Mm > 8.0

 

 

 

RED

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Imminent danger (less than 3 hours), or very severe danger of tsunami. General warning for evacuation of population along the coast, boats in harbors, and airport.

 

   Delay > 3 hours

   and Mm > 8.0

  -----------------------

   Delay > 9 hours

   and Mm > 9.0

 

 

 

 

What actions are taken in response to warnings issued by PTWC during intersessional period?

 

Own TREMORS seismic stations are checked.

 

A proposal for a decision about the emission of a tsunami warning is prepared by CPPT and transmitted immediately to the Civil Defense.

 

 

6. National Sea Level Network

 

At the present time France has four (4) sea gauges installed in harbours in French Polynesia, maintained by LDG/Pamatai, PTWC and the University of Hawaii :

-         one in Papeete (Tahiti harbour)

-         one in Rikitea harbour (Gambiers Islands)

-         two in Marquesas Archipelago, one in Taiohae (Nuku-Hiva) and one in the Tahauku bay (Hiva-Oa)

 

 

7. Information on Tsunami occurrences

 

No local tsunami occurrences in 2001-2003.

The only distant tsunami detected was the 22 January 2003 Colima-Mexico tsunami generated by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake. On the Hiva Oa recent tide gage records, several waves of a few cm of amplitude and arround 20 minutes of period arrived just after the theoretical arrival time of the tsunami.

 


 

 NARRATIVE

 

SEA LEVEL Network

The French Polynesia sea-level network has been largely improved during the last 2 years.

A new tide gauge was installed in January 2003, in Hiva Oa Island, Tahauku bay. This bay is well known for its properties of extreme amplification for tsunamis coming from South and Central America. This project financed by the French Government, was the support of PTWC. PTWC prepared and installed the equipment, and provided its expertise to the CPPT staff.

The data are sent to PTWC in real time via Handar Goes DCP. They are retransmitted to the CPPT (Centre Polynésien de Prévention des Tsunamis), by TELEX. The data are plotted in quasi real time on a dedicated computer.

In the same time, we take benefit of this mission to Marquises Island to help PTWC staff to install in a new place and update the Nuku-Hiva tide gauge.

 

 

TREMORS Station

One broad band station was installed in New Caledonia (DZM Station). TREMORS is implemented in IRD facilities in Nouméa and in DASE in France. This new station gives good detection and estimation of the tsunami risk for the South West Pacific region, from Indonesia to the South of New Zealand.

The results are sent and publish in real time on the European-Mediterranean web page (www.emsc-csem.org).

 

The TREMORS System has been upgraded. In addition to warning computed on the Mm magnitude and scalar seismic moment Mo, a seismic warning has been implemented on the P wave: it is based on the ratio STA/LTA (Short Time Average, Long Time Average) which can trigger a warning immediately on big P wave (for example waves greater than 50 time the seismic noise level).

The recognition of the slow earthquakes, following the criteria given by Okal and Newman (Teleseismic estimate of radiated energy: the E/Mo discriminant for tsunami earthquake, 1998). The computation of the E/Mo discriminant is done interactively in a graphical interface, just by selection of the P wave.

 

 

Evolutions of the tsunami emergency plan in French Polynesia.

 

Taking into account the evolutions in technology and data analysis, a new tsunami warning plan has been re-evaluated and updated in collaboration with Civil Defense. Also, a color-code of warning which is a function of the time delay and seriousness of the danger, has been adopted in a similar way than Meteo-France for typhoon warnings, to facilitate the progress of actions during real warning. The seriousness of the danger would be a function of 2 parameters : the delays available (3,6,9 hours) and the event's magnitude, as established by the scalar seismic moment given by TREMORS system. The next Table shows the color scale of warning as a function of the time delay (depending on the concerned regions) and magnitude. The time delays were simply set at 9 hours, 6 hours, and less than or equal to 3 hours, and the actions corresponding to each color were set to be :

 

 

 

 

YELLOW

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warning at the Laboratory

Warning for Civil Defense, High authorities, State Governors, and  Territorial Government, but no action required immediately. Further evolution of the warning to depend on several parameters, including the earthquake's location, tide gauge readings, external information, and reports by PTWC or other warning centers. The warning can be cancelled at any time based on external information or other reports.

 

 

 

 

   Delay > 9 hours

   and Mm > 7.0

 

 

ORANGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warning of Civil Defense, City and Local Authorities and Municipalities, Police Headquarters, and other emergency responders, but a severe danger of tsunami has not been confirmed. The time delay is 6-9 hours before the tsunami arrival, and the population has not been informed of a possible evacuation.

 

 

 

   Delay > 6 hours

   and Mm > 8.0

 

 

 

RED

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Imminent danger (less than 3 hours), or very severe danger of tsunami. General warning for evacuation of population along the coast, boats in harbors, and airport.

 

   Delay > 3 hours

   and Mm > 8.0

  -----------------------

   Delay > 9 hours

   and Mm > 9.0

 

 

Preliminary Focal Mechanism Determination (PDFM)

This project has been started in 1997 with the goal of getting early solution of focal mechanism for strong earthquake in a context of tsunami warning. A good knowledge of the seismic source is obviously of crucial importance in tsunami warning because the tsunami excitation is strongly dependant of focal depth, earthquake size (seismic moment), and fault geometry. In one hand for recognizing a true shallow thrust faulting event is of great importance for issuing a true warning, on the other hand, it is a matter of fact that tsunamis are poorly excited by shallow (even big) event with pure strike slip fault geometry (quake of Macquarie Isl. .of June 1985 and Balleny Isl. of mars 1998).

In the PDFM project the moment tensor is obtained from the inversion of surface wave spectra (Rayleigh and Love). In fact, we want to use the benefit of the analysis of each TREMORS stations, which send automatically the surface wave spectra via email to a central laboratory : spectra are ready for the inversion.. At the present stage it is not fully automated, and needs still operator intervention.

In 2002 and 2003 more than 25 focal mechanism were published in the EMSC web page.

PDFM was also tested to study large historical earthquake, for which no definitive focal mechanism has been published. As PDFM method needs only spectral amplitude without the phase information, there is no need of precise timing correction used for the phase velocity (that are used for standard inversion of moment tensor). Thus, the method was applied to study the large Banda Sea earthquake of February 1, 1938; the results show a very large moment approaching 1022 Nm, with a focal depth of 65 km explaining well the small tsunami observed in this region despite of the size of this earthquake. 

 

A 2 days Tsunami warning exercise in Marquises Islands

To validate the new tsunami warning plan, and in conjunction to the official inauguration of the Hiva Oa tide gauge in February 2003, a 2 days tsunami warning exercise was held in several Islands of South Marquises (Hiva Oa, Tahuata and Fatu Hiva) to test in situ, the tsunami warning plan with local authorities state administrators, municipalities, Police and Fire-man (the general population was not involved).

The goal of this exercise was to identify potential communication problem during warning that might occur between the Civil Defense and local authorities. During this exercise, a realistic scenario of tsunami generated by a 8.4 magnitude earthquake located in Chile was chosen, and CPPT and Civil Defense transmitted one message per hour to local authorities, involving practical actions (inventory of radio, infirmaries, available cars, safe and high places to evacuate the populations …etc.).

At these occasions, several conferences on tsunamis where given in school and municipalities, with a large distribution of educational documents on tsunami phenomenon (The French version of Tsunami the Great Wave IOC brochure), for a better understanding of tsunami and danger preparedness.

 

ITSU Cooperation

The French version of the Tsunami Glossary has been published by France in 1200 copies. France offered to Canada 200 copies of the Glossary.

France has provided to the Associate Director ITIC, all the art-work on a CD-ROM for the publication by Chile of the English and Spanish versions of the glossary.

 

French Antilles  Volcanic Tsunami Occurrence

The Monstserrat volcano is eruptive since 1996. Recently, a large eruption occurred on July 13 2003. Two large explosions occurred between 4:00 and 5:00 UTM. The day after, it was observed that a large part of the volcanoe’s dome disappeared and flewed into the sea.

 

At the time of the explosions, a tsunami of 2 m high was observed in Deshaies in a river. The phenomena of ‘mascaret’ was observed 3 times. In that river several small boats were damaged.

 

Tsunami Observation on French MediterrineanCoast

A strong Mw 6.9 earthquake occured on May 21 2003 on the Algerian coasts, near the city of Boumerdes, about 60 km east of Algiers. This shallow earthquake (less than 10 km) could partly explain the importanty damage on buildings and the high death toll (2500 casualties).

Reports of sea disturbances along the Algerian coasts have been rather poor.

On the southeastern coasts of the Balearic Islands (250 km north from the epicenter), sea disturbance have been clearly observed. Wintnesses have reported waves up to 2 m high, and a mean observed period of 10-12 minutes. 10 boats sunk and several other tens were seriously damage.

 

A few tide gauges have reported seal level variations around the Mediterranean Sea. In Nice (France) 6 waves of 5 to 10 cm amplitudes was observed. The arrival time of the first perturbation is 20:20, 100 minutes after the main shock.

 

Publications

Hébert, H., P. Heinrich, F. Schindelé, and A. Piatanesi, Far-field simulation of tsunami propagation in the Pacific Ocean: impact on the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia), Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, C5, 9161-9278, 2001.

Hébert, H., F. Schindelé, and P. Heinrich, Tsunami risk assessment in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) through numerical modeling of generic far-field events, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 1, 233-242, 2001.

Hébert, H., A. Piatanesi, P. Heinrich, F. Schindelé, and E. A. Okal, Numerical modeling of the September 13, 1999, landslide and tsunami at Fatu Hiva (Marquesas, French Polynesia), Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 10, 122-1-122-4, 2002.

Hébert, H., and P.J. Alasset, The tsunami triggered by the 21 May 2003 Algiers earthquake, EMSC-CSEM Newsletter, 2°, 10-12, sept. 2003.

Heinrich, P., A. Piatanesi, and H. Hébert, Efficiency of deep submarine landslides in producing tsunamis: the 1998 Papua New Guinea event, Geophysical Journal international, 145, 97-111, 2001.

Reymond, D., and O. Hyvernaud, Evolution of the tsunami warning plan in French Polynesia and tsunami warning exercise in the Marquesas Islands, Tsunami Newsletter, Vol XXXIV, N° 4, August 2002.

Schindelé, F., D. Reymond, H. Hébert, et P. Heinrich, Les risques naturels d'origine géophysique aux îles Marquises, Géologie de la France, 2, 39-52, 2002.

Schindelé, F., H. Hébert, and D. Reymond, Le risque tsunami en Polynésie française, Géologues, sous presse, 2003.

 

 

Abstracts

Hébert, H., P. Heinrich, F. Schindelé, and A. Piatanesi, Tsunami risk assessment in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) through numerical modeling: far-field and local hazards, Coastal and Tsunami Early Warning Systems Worshop, Lagos, Portugal, November 1-3, 2001.

Schindelé, F., and H. Hébert, Tsunami risk assessment in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia): numerical modeling of trans-Pacific events, Tsunami Mitigation Beyond 2000 Workshop, Cartagena, Colombia, October 5-6, 2001.

Hébert, H.,F. Schindelé, P. Heinrich, A. Piatanesi, and E.A. Okal, Local tsunami hazard in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia): numerical modeling of the 1999 Fatu Hiva landslide and tsunami, EGS 2002 Meeting, Nice, France, April 2002.

Schindelé, F., and H. Hébert, Parameters controlling far-field tsunami amplitudes and periods: comparison of tsunami generated close to the trench with those under the continental platform, EGS 2002 Meeting, Nice, France, April 2002.

Altınok, Y., B. Alpar, H. Hebert, Z. Düzgit and A.C. Yalçıner, The Effects of the Marmara Tsunamis on the Coastal Area and in the Strait of İstanbul, MEDCOAST 03, Sixth International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment, Ravenna, Italy, 7-11 October 2003.

Hébert, H., F. Schindelé, Y. Altinok, B. Alpar, and C. Gazioglu, Tsunami modeling in the Marmara Sea (Turkey): risk assessment and study of active faulting, EGS-AGU-EUG 2003 Joint Meeting, Nice, France, April 2003.

 

 

 

Date: 10/09/2003

 

 

 

Name: François Schindelé

            National Representative of France ICG/ITSU

            Dominique Reymond

Director  Centre Polynésien de Prévention des Tsunamis (CPPT) – Tahiti French Polynesia


National Report of Japan

NATIONAL REPORT OF JAPAN

 

 

BASIC INFORMATION

 

1.         ICG/ITSU National Contact:

 Mr. Noritake NISHIDE

Director, Earthquake and Tsunami Observations Division,

Seismological and Volcanological Department,

Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-8122

JAPAN

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tel: +81-3-3284-1743

Fax: +81-3-3215-2963

Cellular phone: +81-90-3474-9592

 

2.         Primary Warning Recipient. 

 Seismological and Volcanological Department,

Japan Meteorological Agency

1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-8122

JAPAN

Tel: +81-3-3211-7952

Fax: +81-3-3212-6446

 

3.         Tsunami Advisor. 

Mr. Noritake NISHIDE

Director, Earthquake and Tsunami Observations Division,

Seismological and Volcanological Department,

Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-8122

JAPAN

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tel: +81-3-3284-1743

Fax: +81-3-3215-2963

Cellular phone: +81-90-3474-9592

 

 

4.         Local Tsunami Procedures.

 

tsunami forecast

Value of Tsunami Height to be issued

Tsunami
Warning

Major Tsunami

"3m", "4m", "6m", "8m", "over 10m"

Tsunami

"1m", "2m"

Tsunami
Advisory

Tsunami Attention

"0.5m"

(Tsunami heights are measured from the ordinary tide levels)

Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) watches the seismic activity around Japan.  When a large earthquake is detected, JMA immediately determines the location and magnitude of the earthquake and executes the tsunami forecast operation using the numerical-simulation derived database.  Tsunami forecasts are categorized into three; Major Tsunami Warning, Tsunami Warning and Tsunami Advisory, depending on the forecast height of the tsunami as shown in the above table.  JMA issues tsunami forecasts for 66 individual regions designated across the country.  In the tsunami forecasts, the maximum height and the arrival time of the tsunami are indicated.

JMA provides the broadcasting media and the national and local authorities for disaster prevention with tsunami forecasts and other tsunami bulletins.  Governors of municipalities are authorized to give their residents instructions to evacuate for mitigating disasters caused by a tsunami. 

Warnings and Advisories are cancelled when JMA concludes that the dangerous situation is over.  Namely, when the observed heights of a tsunami diminish and become lower than 20cm, Tsunami Warnings and/or Advisories are cancelled.

 

 

5.        Distant Tsunami Procedures.

 

JMA receives information from PTWC and USGS on teleseismic events around the clock.  In case of tsunamigenic events from a distant source, JMA immediately executes the tsunami forecast operation after receiving the information (location and magnitude of the earthquake) in the same manner as the Local Tsunami Procedure.  The criteria for the tsunami forecast for teleseismic events are same as those in the Local Tsunami Procedures.  Overseas tsunami observations are also referred for the final decision of the estimation of tsunami height.

JMA executes the tsunami-forecast operation using numerical simulation derived database with the focus data in the warning bulletin issued by PTWC and USGS, and determines whether the tsunami affects Japanese coast.

 

 

6.         National Sea Level Network.

 

 

Station name

Latitude

Longitude

Hanasaki

43°17´ N

145°34´ E

Ofunato

39°01´ N

141°45´ E

Omaezaki

34°37´ N

138°13´ E

Tosashimizu

32°47´ N

132°58´ E

Naha

26°13´ N

127°40´ E

(The stations of which observational data are transmitted via GTS)

 

There are 103 observational points for tsunami in Japan at which float-type (well-type) gauges are installed to monitor the sea level.  At 66 out of the 103 points, Huge-Tsunami Gauges are installed on the ground to observe the height of large-scale tsunamis that exceed the measuring range of the float-type gauges.

 

 

7.         Information on Tsunami Occurrences. (September 2001 – June 2003)

 

Details of the tsunamis observed from September 2001 to June 2003 are described below, where the time is UTC and the height of tsunami indicates the deviation from the ordinary tide level*. The tsunami bulletins on the events shown in this section were forwarded to PTWC and neighbouring countries.

 

* Note: The figures for tsunami heights in JMA’s observation bulletin are defined as the vertical distances between a crest and preceding trough.

 

a)         A small tsunami was observed for the earthquake near Yonaguni Island to the east of Taiwan, on 18 December 2001

 

Earthquake source

 

Date

18 December 2001

Time

4:02

Latitude

23°53´ N

Longitude

122°49´ E

Depth

12km

Magnitude

7.3

 

 


Tsunami observations

 

Station

Beginning time

Maximum height

Time

Height

Ishigaki

4:47

5:00

4cm

Yonaguni

4:12

4:17

12cm

 

Tsunami Forecast

 

Time

Grade

Region

4:09

Tsunami Attention

Miyakojima and Yaeyama Area

5:20

Cleared up

 

 

 

 

b)         A small tsunami was observed for the earthquake near Ishigaki Island to the east of Taiwan, on 26 March 2002

 

Earthquake source

 

Date

26 March 2002

Time

3:45

Latitude

23°12´ N

Longitude

124°16´ E

Depth

0km

Magnitude

6.6

 

Tsunami observations

 

Station

Beginning time

Maximum height

Time

Height

Ishigaki

4:11

4:22

3 cm

Yonaguni

4:11

4:49

6 cm

 

Tsunami Forecast

 

Time

Grade

Region

3:54

Tsunami

Miyakojima and Yaeyama Area

Tsunami Attention

Okinawa Islands

4:30

Cleared up

 

 

 

 

c)         A small tsunami was observed for the earthquake near Taiwan, on 31 March 2002

 

Earthquake source

 

Date

31 March 2002

Time

6:52

Latitude

24°14´ N

Longitude

121°58´ E

Depth

55km

Magnitude

7.0

 

Tsunami observations

 

Station

Beginning time

Maximum height

Time

Height

Ishigaki

7:38

7:51

6 cm

Yonaguni

7:05

7:19

12 cm

 

Tsunami Forecast

 

Time

Grade

Region

7:02

Tsunami

Miyakojima and Yaeyama Area

Tsunami Attention

Okinawa Islands

7:40

Cleared up

 

 

 

 

d)         A small tsunami was observed for the earthquake near the north coast of New Guinea, on 8 September 2002

 

Earthquake source

 

Date

8 September 2002

Time

18:44

Latitude

3°18´ S

Longitude

142°57´ E

Depth

13km

Magnitude

7.3

 

Tsunami observations

(The data which was over 10cm and was transmitted via GTS)

 

Station

Beginning time

Maximum height

Time

Height

Mera

9/ 02:--

3:33

10cm

Chichijima

 

 

8/ 23:--

1:09

10cm

Minamitorishima

9/   0:--

8:41

14cm

Omaezaki

9/ 10:--

5:28

9cm

Owase

9/   1:--

3:25

10cm

Kushimoto

9/   0:56

8:54

11cm

Murotomisaki

 

9/   1:--

1:54

21cm

Tosashimizu

9/   0:--

2:11

17cm

Aburatsu

9/   0:32

2:18

13cm

Makurazaki

9/   1:--

1:58

14cm

Tanegashima

9/   0:--

1:34

10cm

Naha

9/   1:--

1:55

4cm

 

No tsunami forecast was issued.

Earthquake information with the possibility of slight sea level change was issued.

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

 

 Japan commenced providing overseas authorities responsible for tsunami-disaster prevention with the tsunami forecasts on Japan Sea on 15 January 2001.  This was the first step toward the establishment of the regional tsunami center for the western North Pacific area.  At the ICG/ITSU-XVIII Session, Japan requested Member States to provide seismic data on a real-time or near (quasi)-real-time basis to generate higher accurate focus data necessary to extend JMA’s tsunami forecast area to the western North Pacific area.  However, it is still undergoing since considerable infrastructures are required to realize the sufficient data exchange.  After the session, JMA has developed a method to determine hypocenter by using LISS (Live internet Seismic Server) data of USGS and new formulas to estimate moment magnitude.  Up to this day, reliable performances have been revealed with both methods.  JMA is steadily preparing for the implementation of the regional tsunami center for the western North Pacific area.

 

 JMA will upgrade EPOS (Earthquake Phenomena Observation System) in October 2003. The tsunami forecast and the earthquake information will be issued thereby more quickly.

 

 

NARRATIVE

 

 

A.                 Evolution toward providing the tsunami forecast in the western North Pacific area

 

JMA has improved techniques to determine more quickly and precisely the hypocenters and moment magnitudes of large teleseismic events.

 

On the occurrence of the large teleseismic events, JMA tentatively determines hypocenters of teleseismic events by using only Japanese domestic array data for the triggers of the urgent operation.  These estimated hypocenters and magnitudes are insufficient for the tsunami forecast because of their poor accuracy.  Then JMA has normally used the information on the events received from PTWC or USGS for its Distant Tsunami Procedures.  In 2002, JMA started development of a method for determination of hypocenters by using LISS data, which is maintained by USGS and provides raw seismic data obtained from observation sites around the world via the Internet.  Although some delayed data are not available for the urgent forecast operation, reasonable hypocenters have been obtained by the method. The horizontal distances between hypocenters by the method and those determined and reviewed by USGS became less than 30km.

 

As for the estimation of moment magnitude, the new empirical formulas using the waveform data of the STS2 seismometer of Matsushiro Seismological Observatory (MAJO) were devised. In the formulas, the root mean square amplitude within the period from arrival time of P waves to that of S wave or fixed time period (3min.or 5min.or…) from arrival time of P wave is used instead of the maximum amplitude.  The standard deviation of the difference between magnitudes estimated by this formula and those by USGS became about 0.2.

 

 So far, the almost same performances as those by the procedures in USGS have been recognized in newly developed methods for determination of hypocenters and estimation of moment magnitude respectively.  If more seismic data in the western North Pacific area are obtained through LISS, they supposedly raise the precision of determined hypocenter. 

 

In addition to successive improvement and verification of above methods, JMA started a study on the suitable partition as the tsunami-forecast regions in the western North Pacific area based on the numerical simulation results.  JMA has also improved techniques to determine the depth of hypocenters to implement further enhanced tsunami forecast.

 

 

B.                 Upgrading of EPOS (Earthquake Phenomena Observation System)

 

EPOS is the JMA’s integrated processing system for earthquake and tsunami operation, which consists of on-line switching system for seismic bulletins, a platform for urgent operation and review analysis etc.  All the seismic/tsunami observation data and other domestic/overseas seismic bulletins are collected and put into EPOS, and earthquake information and tsunami forecasts such as Tsunami Warnings and Advisories are generated and distributed from the system.  Hypocenters and magnitudes are determined automatically or manually on EPOS as the case may be with Quantitative Tsunami Forecast System which comprises the huge database of assumed tsunami height and arrival time for various locations and types of fault model calculated by numerical simulation and is closely connected with EPOS.

JMA plans the upgrade of EPOS in October 2003. Totally enhanced tsunami operation i.e. more prompt and precise response to the occurrence of earthquakes is expected.

 

 

 

4 July 2003

Noritake NISHIDE

 

 

 


National Report of New Zealand

 NATIONAL REPORT FORMAT submitted by New Zealand

                                                                                               

 

BASIC INFORMATION

 

1.            ICG/ITSU National Contact:

                Name:                                                     Mike O’Leary

                Organization:                                           Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency

                                                                               Management

                Postal Address:                                       P.O. Box 5010 Wellington New Zealand

                e-mail Address:                                       This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

                Telephone Number:                                  64 4 473 7363

    Fax Number:                                           64 4 473 7369

 

2.            Primary Warning Recipient.  (person, agency or organization with primary

                responsibility receiving and acting upon messages issued by PTWC)

                Name:                                                     Mike O’Leary

                Responsible Organization:                         Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency

                                                                                Management

                Postal Address:                                        P.O. Box 5010 Wellington New Zealand

    e-mail Address:                                        This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.,

                                                                   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

                Emergency Telephone Number:                 64 4 473 0021

                Emergency Fax Number:                          64 4 4732 9596

                Emergency Cellular phone:                       64 4 473 0021 (National Duty Officer)

 

3.            Tsunami Advisor(s).  (Person, Committee or Agency managing Tsunami mitigation)

                Name:                                                     Tsunami Advisory Group (TAG)

                Postal Address:                                       Nil

                e-mail Address:                                       Nil

    Emergency Telephone Number:                (Held by Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management (MCDEM))

                Emergency Fax Number:                    

                Emergency Cellular phone:

 

4.            Local Tsunami Procedures.             

 

The National Civil Defence Plan determines how New Zealand responds to warnings in relation to pending emergencies.  The Director of Civil Defence can issue warnings for all or part of New Zealand in respect of hazards that might lead to, or worsen, a civil defence emergency. This brief contains the basic guidelines on what actions are undertaken by the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management (MCDEM) Duty Officer when dealing with information related to possible civil defence incidents. It ranges from dealing with information on tsunami, adverse weather, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and civil defence emergencies, to activating the National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) and the Duty Officer Call Plan.

 

The Ministry’s warning system (incoming information) is primarily based upon a 24-hour emergency telephone number (64 4 473 0021), staffed by a rostered Duty Officer. All calls to this number are transferred via Answer Services (NZ) Ltd to a call plan rotating among five duty officers. Answer Services ensures that all calls are answered by a human operator with a standard greeting. The operator then actions the call according to standard instructions supplied to them.

 

Whereas some calls and messages may be able to be dealt with by the duty officer at the time, others, because of the nature of the emergency, may have to be referred on, in which case the Manager Readiness or in his absence the Director of Civil Defence is to be contacted.

 

In addition to monitoring the 24-hour emergency telephone number notices, alerts or warning messages are also received by the duty officers through the following media:

 

§         Fax (office)

§         Fax (home)

§         Email (office)

§         Email (cell phone)

The duty officers also have Internet access, both in the office and via cell phone through which they can verify or check information received through one of the above means.

 

      5.  Tsunami Bulletins

                                                              

Tsunami bulletins, originating from the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre, (PTWC) Hawaii, are faxed through the Airway Fixed Traffic Network (AFTN) network to Airways Corporation, Christchurch. In all cases, the AFTN Supervisor phones the Duty Officer (via Answer Services) to advise that a bulletin has been received and checks that it has been automatically faxed to MCDEM. (The Manager Readiness and the EM Planner - Intelligence also receive copies via their home faxes).  Answer Services also Email the duty officers’ cellphones via a commercial E-message facility (Emsg) to confirm which duty officer is dealing with the tsunami information.

 

PTWC also emails the duty officers at their standard work email addresses as well as their E-message cellphone addresses.

 

To cover any breakdown in transmission over this network, the PTWC also transmits faxes via GTS satellite link to NZ MetService, which is New Zealand’s weather forecasting service.  A MetService forecaster responds using the same contact procedure as for MetService Severe Weather Bulletins (SWBs).

 

This ensures that all of the duty officers receive emails at work and to their cellphones from PTWC and emails from Answer Services.  It also ensures that the Manager Readiness and EM Planner – Intelligence receive faxes from PTWC, Airways and MetService as well as phone contact.

 

Onward transmission of this information is via the National Warning System, which utilizes the Telecom service, efax and a commercial text (SMS) service called Emsg.  More detailed information regarding the National Warning System is covered in the Narrative Section.

 

Summarised Procedures

 

Note:  PTWC timings are given in UTC or GMT, for example “ issued at 2342Z 4 Aug” or “ occurred at 2237 UTC 4 Aug”.  UTC/GMT timings are 12 hours behind NZ normal time.  The following actions are required:

 

   a.   Tsunami Dummy

         (Test message)

  

         Acknowledge receipt when Airways   Corpn/MetService phones through the information.  No further action required.

 

             Confirm with EM Planner (Intelligence) next working day.

 

b.   Tsunami Information Bulletin.

      (Earthquake but no Tsunami generated)

     

      Acknowledge receipt, note information in case there may be any queries on the incident.  Otherwise no further action required.

 

             Confirm with EM Planner (Intelligence) next working day.

 

c. Tsunami Warning                   

(Tsunami generated)

 

Calculate travel time to NZ (refer to chart, “Tsunami Travel Times to NZ”, in NEOC or in                                             

             Duty Officer’s folder).

 

Contact available members of the Tsunami Advisory Group.   Dr Willem de Lange, Waikato University, office 07-838 4239, office fax 07 856 0115, a/h ph 07-856 6565, mobile 025 265 7732, pager 026 101 496, (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) or Prof Terry Healy, office 07-838 4061, a/h 07-854 0901, mobile 021 612 600 (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

 

Inform Manager Readiness (or if unavailable, Director), EMAs immediately on details of expected tsunami and Scientist’s prognosis so that EMAs can warn Regions. Inform them that warning will be sent.

 

             Prepare fax message (pro forma)

 

Phone Police, Northern Comms Centre (09-526 3470), Central Comms Centre (04-460 1720), Southern Comms Centre (03-336 35604). Advise that warning message is being faxed and to phone you to confirm receipt.

 

Send prepared Fax message (eFax list no 063, 060). Back up by email (see Warning Procedures in NEOC or MEM-2500-4).

 

            As directed by Manager Readiness/Director, fax Warning Messages to Media, & Depts, etc (List no 067 for media; 066 for depts.)

 

             Action all up-dates that come from PTWC. 

 

             Log all actions.

 

     d.  Tsunami Watch                           

             (PTWC alerts us that a tsunami may have been generated but has yet to be confirmed)          

 

             Calculate travel time to NZ.

 

          Contact available members of the Tsunami Advisory Group.   Dr Willem de Lange, Waikato University, office 07856 2889, a/h 07-856 6565, mobile 025 265 7732, pager 026 101 496 or Prof Terry Healy, office 07-838 4061, fax 07 856 0115, a/h ph 07-854 0901, brief and ask for advice, and ask to remain on standby for any further advice.

 

             Inform Manager Readiness (or if unavailable, Director), and EMAs

 

             Prepare fax message as for Tsunami Warning

 

Fax information to regions, territorial authorities, departments, Minister and Secretary, others as appropriate. (As for Warning)   

 

Note: No action is taken to alert the public unless it is estimated that an initial wave could reach New Zealand in less than three hours.                                            

                                                                  

             Action all up-dates from PTWC

 

Log all actions.

 

6.   Local Tsunami

 

New Zealand is perhaps more at risk from local tsunami, generated “locally” by earthquakes and/or underwater landslides or volcanoes along our plate subduction zones off eastern New Zealand and southwest of South Island, than from distant tsunami. This hazard is high risk because of the potentially large tsunami wave heights and lack of adequate warning. One example is the tsunami that hit the Gisborne region on 25 March 1947, with heights of up to 10 m, probably caused by a combination of fault movement off the coast and an underwater landslide triggered by the earthquake. Unlike remote tsunami, little warning is possible for the pending arrival at the coast because of the close proximity of faulting, the continental plate subduction zone, and volcanoes along our coastline.

 

The National Institute of Water and Atmospherics’ (NIWA) research is targeted at pinpointing geological features like previous seabed slumping, landslides and faulting on the ocean floor that may potentially cause a tsunami, and then how and where the resulting tsunami would propagate to the coast. Dr. Roy Walters is leading the work on developing novel computer models to simulate the behavior of sediment-rock-water mixtures in an underwater landslide and the ensuing tsunami.[1]

 

Tsunami generated by faults adjacent to New Zealand usually involve a travel time of less than 30 minutes.  The Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS) operates the national seismic monitoring system that detects and measures all earthquakes occurring around New Zealand.  The reporting of significant earthquakes to responding agencies can take 15 – 20 minutes but cannot predict the generation of a tsunami.  Usually the first indication that New Zealand will get of a local tsunami is when it comes ashore. However, over the next year, commencing August 2003, the national seismic monitoring network (“GeoNet”) will be upgraded with real-time data communications and new sensors to detect near shore earthquakes and report the slow ones that have the potential to generate tsunami.[2]  These steps will enhance New Zealand’s ability to detect and respond to local tsunami.

 

7.  Distant Tsunami Procedures. (When distant tsunami hazard exists)

 

During the inter-sessional period New Zealand responded to 32 Watches and Bulletins.

 

8.  National Sea Level Network. (Please include a table with position and description of

                stations / sensors).

 

New Zealand has a network of 19 high-quality, open-coast, sea level stations sited at strategic locations around the country. The recorders routinely sample at five-minute intervals, but most of those on the east coast also now have a tsunami ring-buffer, where the latest 72 hours of data sampled at 1-minute intervals are continuously stored.

 

All the instruments have cellphone telemetry and are polled daily to retrieve the five-minute data that is used for analysis of seiche, tides, storm surges and long-period sea-level fluctuations. In the event of a tsunami, recorders can be interrogated manually to download the tsunami ring-buffer. In the future, we plan to upgrade all the recorders to the new cellphone technology: general radio packet system (GPRS), making data available continuously via the Internet.[3]  This network is managed by NIWA.  Further information is available through Dr Derek Goring.

 

Figure 1 - New Zealand Sea Level Monitors (Courtesy of NIWA - WWW.niwa.cri.nz)

 

 

9.            Information on Tsunami occurrences.  (Please include records, pictures, etc.)

 

                No tsunami have affected New Zealand in the inter-sessional period

 


 

SUMMARY

 

 

During the inter-sessional period New Zealand has responded to 30 Tsunami Bulletins, two Watches and 34 Dummy Messages issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre.

 

No locally-generated tsunami have occurred.

 

In the intervening period considerable work has been undertaken in increasing capability across the scientific and emergency management sectors.  This includes:

 

q       sea level gauges

q       seismic measurement

q       National Warning Systems

q       Regional hazard awareness and planning

 

New Zealand now has a network of 19 high-quality, open-coast, sea level stations sited at strategic locations around the country operated by NIWA. The recorders routinely sample at five-minute intervals, and most of those on the east coast also now have a tsunami ring-buffer, where the latest 72 hours of data sampled at 1-minute intervals is continuously stored.

 

GNS operates a national seismic monitoring system for the detection and measurement of earthquakes occurring around New Zealand.  Over the next year, commencing August 2003, the national seismic monitoring network (“GeoNet”) will be upgraded with real-time data communications and new sensors to detect near shore earthquakes and report slow ones that have the potential to generate tsunami.

 

The MCDEM National Warning System has been significantly enhanced with the addition of a 24/7answering service, CDMA cellphone technology with internet and email capability the use of eFax and Emsg to inform a wide variety of audiences across an extensive notification list.

 

In December 2002 the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002 came into force. The Act requires a risk management-based approach to the sustainable management of all hazards, both natural and man-made, at a district and regional level via Civil Defence Emergency Management Groups (CDEM Groups).

 

Each CDEM Group must produce an integrated CDEM Group Plan within two years of formation. These plans must specify the hazards and risks they face in each region, how those risks are managed and how their management is to be improved. As a result CDEMGs will be specifically addressing the hazard and risks associated with tsunami where relevant.

 


 

NARRATIVE

 

Under Part 3 of the National Civil Defence Plan, the Director of Civil Defence and Emergency Management can issue warnings for all or part of New Zealand in respect of hazards that might lead to or worsen a civil defence emergency. Examples of such warnings are the impending arrival of a tsunami, a potential volcanic eruption or severe weather events. Where possible, early notification in the form of an alert may precede a warning.

 

The National Warning System gives effect to the Ministry’s responsibility in this regard. On their part, each regional council, territorial authority, department and organisation is responsible to maintain its own warning system that includes measures to pass on alerts or warnings issued by the Director.

 

The Ministry’s prime sources of information leading to alerts or warnings are the Institute for Geological & Nuclear Sciences (GNS), MetService and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre in Hawaii, the NZ Centre for Critical Infrastructure Protection (CCIP) and the United Nations (UNDAC). Standing procedures direct these sources on the notification to MCDEM of pending events.

 

Alerts or warnings are issued direct to:

 

q          Regional councils and territorial authorities (TA’s)

q          The general public when appropriate

q          Government departments and agencies, news media, lifelines and CRI’s as appropriate

 

Messages are sent according to standard operating procedures by both fax and Email to the appropriate address lists. In the case of warnings, a copy of the message is also faxed to the three New Zealand Police Communications Centres who instruct Police Districts to check with local civil defence offices at the TA’s whether they have received the message. Regional councils also check the same with TA’s and confirm receipt by all to the Ministry’s Emergency Management Advisors (EMA’s) allocated to the respective regions. The EMA’s confirm and report on the timings of receipt by all back to the national duty officer. In the event of a warning message being sent after hours, the EMA’s will alert the regions by phone that a message has been sent or is forthcoming. The regions in turn will alert the TA’s. In all cases regions and TA’s also contact and warn other local agencies as appropriate. 

 

This is followed with a text (SMS) to all Regional Councils and TA’s.  MCDEM has recently added this capability to the Warning System so that text (SMS) messages can be sent further informing the emergency managers in the Regional Councils and TA’s of the existence of a National CD Warning.

 

MCDEM provides a “value added” service in that all warning related information is received, assessed and considered as to whether it needs to be disseminated, and in what format e.g. an alert or a warning. Different standard operating procedures and criteria exist for the actioning of information related to weather, earthquake, tsunami and volcanic events respectively. While these procedures in some types of events e.g. tsunami and volcanic, provide clear guidelines on what action is warranted by what type of information, the element of judgement is, however, always present in deciding on the appropriate response. A balance between time (to facilitate fore-knowledge) and the quality of information (verification and threat analysis to avoid false alarm and achieve maximum value) has to be struck. This underlines the importance of a basic understanding of the nature of the different type of events by the relevant Ministry staff, and the value that the Ministry puts on maintaining a close relationship with its advisors and sources involved in the respective fields of speciality.

 

The Ministry conducts quarterly tests of the national warning system. A test message is sent (unannounced) to all Territorial Authorities and Regions as well as the Police Communications Centres. The tests offer the ability to check faults on address lists, response times and any system problems that might arise. Based upon the results of these tests, continuous “fine tuning” is done.

 

In addition, a “National Contact List for Emergencies” is maintained. The list is sent to all civil defence offices on a quarterly basis to be checked for changes and updates. The list contains the contact particulars of the civil defence officers, controllers and alternative controllers at all councils.

 

The new CDEM legislation requires the first National CDEM Plan to be completed within three years commencing Dec 2002. Amongst other areas, the National CDEM Plan must detail a national warning system. The drafting of the new Plan therefore implies scrutinising the existing Civil Defence Warning System (Part 3 of the existing National Civil Defence Plan).

 

As a precursor to the above process, the Ministry is in the process of establishing a working party existing of relevant sector stakeholders to help shape ideas around the improvement of the existing national warning system. It is also envisaged that the deliberations by this group will result in immediate changes to particular standard operating procedures relating to the existing system.

 

In addition, the investigation and employment of instruments aimed at enhancing decision-making and analysis of information related to alerts and warnings deserves constant attention. The Ministry is currently considering proposals for such instruments offered by systems capable of providing hazard information, risk analysis, modelling based upon scenarios and previous events, formatting of alerts and warnings etc.

 

Since the beginning of 2002 CDMA cell phone technology has been added to the Ministry’s Readiness Unit and its Emergency Management Advisors in Christchurch, Auckland and Wellington. The new digital cell phones allow for email and Internet access by phone, and have already proved an invaluable instrument in the monitoring and warning capability. It enables personnel to receive text (SMS) information by email from key sources of information like the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), MetService and Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC) without the need of access to an Internet-linked PC. Likewise, when the duty officer receives a telephonic alert call he/she has the ability to immediately access the websites of relevant agencies via the phone and any other sources to verify or interpret the information.

 

In a further attempt to improve on its response time to issue warnings, the Readiness Unit has also added a  Telecom NZ service, efax, to its capacity. Through efax, email and fax warning messages can be sent to a wide variety of audiences and address lists by any Microsoft Windows-based computer..

 

National Warnings are terminated by a further message from the Director of Civil Defence

 

In December 2002 the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act came into force. The Act requires a risk management-based approach to the sustainable management of all hazards, both natural and man-made. This management is applied in a comprehensive manner across risk reduction, readiness, response, and recovery (the ‘4Rs’), as well as being integrated through the involvement of all sectors and agencies within the wider CDEM community.

 

The new Act:

 

q       Promotes sustainable management of hazards to improve safety of the public and property

q       Encourages communities to decide upon and achieve acceptable levels of risk

q       Requires local authorities to coordinate CDEM planning and activity

q       Provides a basis for integrating national and local CDEM planning

q       Encourages coordination across a wide range of agencies that prevent or manage emergencies

 

One of the key aspects of the nation's improved arrangements is the establishment of regional Civil Defence Emergency Management Groups (CDEM Groups) – consortia of local authorities working in partnership with emergency services (Police, Fire, Health), lifeline utilities and others to deliver emergency management within regional boundaries.

 

Each CDEM Group must produce an integrated CDEM Group Plan within two years of formation. These plans must specify the hazards and risks they face in each region, how those risks are managed, and how their management is to be improved. As a result CDEMGs will be specifically addressing the hazard and risks associated with tsunami.  A standard risk-management methodology has been provided for the planning process (refer: CDEM planning Guidelines at www.civildefence.govt.nz). The process will improve New Zealand's disaster management by allowing national and regional planners to prioritise their hazard study programmes and functional planning activity.

 

 

 

Date:       1 August 2003

Name:     Mike O’Leary

                Manager: Readiness

                Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management

                New Zealand

 

 

(*) as agreed at IOC/ITSU-XVIII.

 



[1] Courtesy Dr Roy Walters NIWA (www.niwa.cri.nz) This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

[2] Courtesy Dr Hugh Cowan Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS) (www.gns.cri.nz) This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

[3] Supplied by Goring, Derek G., National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd., Christchurch, New Zealand.  (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)


National Report of Nicaragua

National Report Format submitted by Nicaragua

 

 

BASIC INFORMATION                 

 

1. ICG/ITSU National Contact:

            Name:                          Claudio Gutiérrez Huete

            Organization:                Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)

            Postal Address:            Apdo. 2110 INETER. Managua, Nicaragua.

            E-mail Address:            This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Telephone Number:       (505) 248-0894

            Fax Number:                (505) 249-1890

            Cellular Telephone:       (505) 882-0426        

 

2. Primary Warning Recipient

            Name:                            Wilfried Strauch

  Responsible Organization: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)

            Postal Address:              INETER, Managua, Nicaragua, Apdo 2110

            E-mail Address:              This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Emergency Tel. Number: office (505) 249-1082 ext. 104             home (505) 233-1383

            Emergency Fax Number: (505) 249-1082

            Cellular Telephone:          (505) 883-0353

           

3. Tsunami Advisors

Name:                             Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de

                                       Desastres (SINAPRED)                                  

Postal Address:               Secretaría del SINAPRED,

                                      Edificio de la Vicepresidencia, Managua

            E-mail Address:               This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Emergency Tel. Number:  (505) 228-6504

            Emergency Fax Number:  (505) 228-2453

            Emergency Cell. Phone:   (505) 882-2764

 

            Name:                                      Defensa Civil de Nicaragua

            Postal Address:                        Defensa Civil, Managua, Nicaragua, Apdo 2955

            E-mail Address:                        This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

            Emergency Tel. Number:           (505) 277-3822

            Emergency Fax Number:           (505) 228-2453

            Emergency Cell. Phone:            (505) 883-4035

 

4. Local Tsunami Procedures

           

Organization that identifies and characterizes tsunamigenic events in the immediate source area:

 

Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) by means of its national seismic network and its round-the-clock early warning system.

 

 

Threshold for declaring a potential local tsunami emergency:

 

Magnitud M >= 7.0; Location in the Pacific Ocean of Central America

 

Organization that acts on the information provided by the agency responsible for characterizing the potential local tsunami thread:

 

The National System for the Prevention, Mitigation and Attention of Disasters (SINAPRED) and the Defensa Civil of Nicaragua, emitting warning messages to the local authorities on the Pacific coast, using an emergency radio communication system .

 

Additionally, INETER contacts seismic networks and Emergency Commissions in the countries of  Central America to inform on the tsunami threat.

 

How is the emergency situation terminated:

 

By a recommendation of INETER, transmitted to the population by SINAPRED and Civil Defense.

 

5. Distant Tsunami Procedures

 

What organization becomes aware of tsunamigenic events from a distant source:

 

Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), by means of receipt of messages from PTWC via email, WMO/GTS.

 

Also, own data from the national seismic network and from the NEIC (National Earthquake Information Center)  are used to detect large earthquakes in the Pacific Basin; institutions near the epicenter of the tsunamigenic event are contacted or Web pages are checked whether a tsunami has occurred.

 

What actions does this organization take with regard to tsunamigenic events from a distant source?

 

An alert message with recommendations on the actions to be taken is sent to the SINAPRED that informs to all institutions members of SINAPRED, the general public and the media.

 

Additionally, INETER contacts seismic networks and Emergency Commissions in Central America to inform on the tsunami threat.

 

What are the criteria for initiating tsunami mitigation procedures?

 

Criteria for taking mitigation measures are:

-         PTWC issues a warning for Central America, and/or

-         INETER estimates that a tsunami threat could exists, based on its own seismic data, or other local, regional or remote sources

 

What actions are taken in response to warnings issued by PTWC during intersessional period?

 

If it is a case of a distant tsunami: Monitoring is intensified, independent information is checked; own seismic recordings are checked; other institutions are requested or their Web sites are monitored whether a tsunami has occurred; media are monitored.

 

A proposal for a decision about the emission of a tsunami warning is prepared by INETER and transmitted immediately to the SINAPRED and the Civil Defense.

 

6. National Sea Level Network

 

At the present time Nicaragua has two (2) sea gauges installed on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, maintained by INETER. One station is installed in Corinto. Data transmission via GOES satellite. There exist problems with the maintenance and fast data access to these stations.

 

7. Information on Tsunami occurrences

 

No local tsunami occurrences.

 

SUMMARY

 

The Nicaraguan Seismic Network was expanded considerably in 2001-2003 considering the needs of the tsunami warning system. A broad band station was installed in the Seismic Data Center of INETER in Managua. TREMORS (problems of data format compatibility occurred) is tested and SEISAN software is used routinely with this station. A preliminary Tsunami Hazard assessment was carried out. The town of Corinto was identified as the site with the highest tsunami risk. The development of a Regional Tsunami Warning System for Central America has been promoted. A mayor upgrade of the Nicaraguan seismic network is planned for 2004-2005.

 

 

NARRATIVE

 

Seismic Network and data center

The Nicaraguan Seismic Network was expanded considerably in 2001-2003 considering the needs of the tsunami warning system. A broad band station (STS-2 seismometer, Quanterra Q330 datalogger, direct access to INETER LAN) was installed in the Seismic Data Center of INETER in Managua, to support the National and Regional Tsunami Warning System. TREMORS Software was installed and tested with the registration of this station. But, problems of data format compatibility could not yet been solved. Meanwhile SEISAN software is used for interactive determination of location and magnitude with the registrations of the station. An automatic procedure for location and magnitude determination, part of SEISAN, is under testing.

 

A digital radio communication link between the Seismic Data Center of INETER and headquarters of Civil Defense in Managua was installed. This link permits the automatic  transmission of data, alert messages and direct access of Civil Defense to INETER web site, GIS and data bases.

 

Tsunami Hazard Assessment

A preliminary study on tsunami hazard at the Pacific and Atlantic coast has been carried out. The town of Corinto was found to be the site with the highest tsunami risk in Nicaragua based on the unfavorable local topographic conditions (very low elevation above sea level), the relatively large population and the long distances to secure places. In case of tsunami waves of more than 5 meters, many persons could be killed. In case of a local tsunami warning  people would have to run more than 10 km to get to high ground.

 

Regional Cooperation

Contacts with the other Central American countries and CEPREDENAC (Center for Disaster Prevention in Central America, Intergovernmental organization) were established to promote the establishment of a Regional Tsunami Warning System.

 

Publications

A poster about the Nicaraguan Tsunami Warning System was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Seismological Society of America, in Puerto Rico (Strauch, W., 2003. The Nicaraguan Tsunami Warning System. SSA Annual Meeting, San Juan Puerto Rico, 30 April-01 May, 2003)

 

Future plans

The Nicaraguan Seismic Network will be further developed in 2003-2005. The installation of 12 broad band stations is planned for 2003. In 2004-05 the telemetered (analog data transmission) network will be completely reorganized installing three-component sensors, digital data acquisition on the site and digital data transmission to the data center. A regional seismic array will be installed. Additional short period and broad band stations will be installed in the Atlantic part of Nicaragua. The Regional Tsunami Warning System will be made fully functional. Detailed tsunami hazard studies are planned in 2004-05 for Corinto, Puerto Sandino, Masachapa and San Juan del Sur,  towns located in the Pacific coast.

 

Date: 24/07/2003

 

 

 

Name: Claudio Gutiérrez Huete

            National Contact of Nicaragua ICG/ITSU

 


National Report of Russian Federation

NATIONAL REPORT

 

NATIONAL REPORT FORMAT submitted by Russian Federation

 

 

BASIC INFORMATION

 

1. ICG/ITSU National Contact:

             Name: Igor P. Kuzminykh

             Organization:The Central Design Office for Hhydrometeorological Instrument Production.

             Postal Address:6 ,.Korolev street, Obninsk ,Kaluga region, 249039 Russian Federation       

             E-mail Address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

             Telephone Number: (+7 084 39) 6 23 03

             Fax Number: (+7 084 39) 6 44 53

             Cellular phone: + 7 910 912 20 17

 

2. Primary Warning Recipient.

2.1.       Name: Anatoly I. Grabovsky and

                         Tatiana N. Ivelskaya

             Responsible Organization: The Sakhalin Interregional Territorial Management for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring .

                 Postal Address: 78, Zapadnaya street, ,. Youzhno-Sakhalinsk, 693000, Russian Federation

,.          E-mail Address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

                                     This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

             Emergency Telephone Number: (+7 424 2) 72 28 20

             Emergency Fax Number: (+7 424 2) 42 01 46

             Emergency Cellular phone:

2.2.       Name: Mikhail I. Ishonin and

                         Victor A. Feofanov

             Responsible Organization:The Kamchatsky Iinterregional Territorial Management for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring .

             Postal Address:12, Molchanova street, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683602, Russian Federation

             E-mail Address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

             Emergency Telephone Number: (+7 415 22) 5 84 44

             Emergency Fax Number: (+7 415 22) 5 84 44

             Emergency Cellular phone:

2.3.       Name: Boris V. Kubay

                 Responsible Organization: Primorskoe Interregional Territorial Management for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring

             Postal Address: 3, Mordovtsev street. ,. Vladivostok,  690600, Russian Federation.

                 E-mail Address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

             Emergency Telephone Number: (+7 423 2) 22 17 50, 22 20 01

             Emergency Fax Number: (+7 423 2) 22 17 50, 22 77 54

             Emergency Cellular phone:

 

3. Tsunami Advisor (s).

             Name: Yury S. Tsaturov and

                         Valery A. Martichenko

             Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring .

             Postal Address: 12,Novovagankovsky street, Moscow, 123242, Russian Federation.

                 E-mail Address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

                                     This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

             Emergency Telephone Number: (+7 095) 252 24 29, (+7 095) 252 45 11     

             Emergency Fax Number: (+7 095) 255 20 90

             Emergency Cellular phone:

 

4. Local Tsunami Procedures.

             In cases, when the expected tsunami intended as local, tsunamigenic events are being found out and are identified by seismic stations (SS) of  Geophysical service of Russian Academy of Sciences (GS RAS). Same SS announce tsunami alarm. Criteria for the alarm announcement   Magnitude and coordinates of tsunamigenic earthquake are.

             The disturbing situation is cancelled as follows. If the tsunami has been registered, then the disturbing situation will be cancelled, if wave height is less than 0,5 meters during not less than 2-3 hours.

                 If the alarm has been announced, but tsunami attributes on the data from coastal hydrometeorological stations (GMS)  were absent, the disturbing situation will be cancelled across (0,5-1,0) hours after the latest settlement time of the wave approach  to places of coast. The cancellation of  disturbing situation is made by the tsunami centres / stations of  ROSHYDROMET in  Youzhno-Sakhalinsk, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Vladivostok.

 

5. Distant Tsunami Procedures.

                 The alarm at tsunamigenic events in  distant zone is announced by the tsunami centres / stations of  ROSHYDROMET in  Youzhno-Sakhalinsk, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Vladivostok.

             After reception the information about parameters of the removed earthquake, from SS of a  GS RAS and foreign SS centres and the stations carry out the following actions:

·       Estimate danger of  tsunami for the Russian coast by magnitude-geographical criterion

·       Calculate the times of tsunami wave approach to coastal places

·      Trauster the wessages on GMS about strengthening of supervision about ocean level

·       Realize the situation alalysis, including data from the foreign centres

·       Make a decision on tsunami threat , form and transfer in channels of communication signals and messages according to the rules and circuits of  notification

Now the danger of  tsunami for the Russian coast is estimated by the following criteria:

·       On the initial stage - by magnitude-geographical criterion

In process of tsunami development  - on the data about registered quantity of ocean

 level

During intersession period the analysis of situation each time has been carried out for the warnings from PTWS, including data from foreign tide stations. In all cases danger for the Russian coast were absent.

 

6. National Sea Level Network.

The coastal hydrometeorological stations (GMS), located in potentially tsunami dangerous places, carry out visual supervision over  tsunami and their consequences.

             In PTWC take part GMS in sities Nikolskoe (Bering island),Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir island),. Yuzhno-Kurilsk (Kunashir island). There are some tidal instruments which now are useless and do not function in these places.

                 In places. Ust-Kamchatsk, Severo-Kurilsk, Malokurilskoe the registrars of a tsunami are established on the basis of  data gathering platform HANDAR, given by IOC UNESCO, but on objective reasons they nor participate in activity PTWC now.

 

7. Information on Tsunami occurrences.

The tsunami cases were not registered during  the intersession period at the Russian coast.

 

 

 

SUMMARY

 

             Supervision, forecasting and the warning of tsunami threat on Far East of Russia now is carried out by the centres of the tsunami warning system  (TWS) of ROSHYDROMET located in  Youzhno-Sakhalinsk, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vladivostok, in close interaction with territorial structures of Ministry for Emergency Siuations of Russia and Ministry for Communications and Information of Russia, seismic stations of   GS RAS and hydrometeorological stations. The TWS centres operatively cooperate with the TWS centres  of foreign countries within the framework of participation of Russia in the International Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS) working under aegis of UNESCO. A subsystem as a whole and the TWS centres work on the basis of the authorized rules and instructions of federal and local levels.

            The divisions involved in TWS provide continuous round-the-clock work, including supervision over seismic conditions and sea level, analysis of situation, acceptance of the decision about the announcement and cancellation of warnings about tsunami threat , preparation and transfer of the appropriate signals and messages according to the circuits of the notification.

             At local tsunamigenic events the tsunami alarm is announced SS  of GS RAS by magnitude-geographical criterion. The disturbing situation is cancelled by the TWS centres of  ROSHYDROMET.

        At removed tsunamigenic events the tsunami alarm is announced by the TWS centres of  ROSHYDROMET on the basis of the information from both Russian and foreign SS, and data about ocean level also . The same tsunami centres  carry out  cancellation of  disturbing situation.

             During the intersession period at the Russian coast the tsunami cases were notregisterend.

             During the intersession period the innovation projects were carried out   with the purpose of modernization Russian TWS, including scientific.

             The basic directions of TWS modernization:

      · Use in TWS data from local  radiotelemetering SS networks and digital SS on Kamchatka and Sakhalin

       ·Equipment of  tide  supervision network by the new telemetering tsunami logger with transfer of  data to the TWS centers.

         ·Introduction of modern hardware-software complexes and modern information technologies at the centres TWS.

 

NARRATIVE

 

 Concerning last national report, i.e. since 2001, the following basic projects and works were carried out:

        The technical project of equipment TWS of Russia by modern means, technologies and methods is developed

              The International conference dedicated a tsunami    (“ Local tsunami warning and     mitigation ”) Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky was carried out during September 10-15, 2002. More than 70    representatives from 12 countries participated in a conference.

                     The scientific bases were developed and the experimental works on hydroacoustic location of area of preparation of large earthquakes at ocean were carried out. It has been shown, that use on  shelf of the specialized hydroacoustic antennae focused on registration of ocean botton seismic activity, can give the new decision of a problem of the warning about local tsunami and raise officiency of tsunami warning service essentially .

The new remote telemetering logger (TRL) of  tsunami in a coastal zone has been developed.                    The experimental sample of TRL has been manufactured, which has passed tests on Kamchatka.

There is planned the equipment of tide supervision network by TRL.

                             A series of works on clarification of spatial-temporal intercorrelation in tsunami and large earthquake distribution has been executed . 6-year's periodicity of tsunami occurrence  at Pacitic ocean for the period 1950-2000  was found out for the first time.

                 The networks of automatic radiotelemetering SS on Kamchatka have been founded. Their attraction to TWS will allow to raise reliability  of tsunamigenic earthquakes definition essentially.

                 The scientific - methodical bases and base algorithmic maintenance for forecasting dynamic characteristics and estimation of tsunami danger degree for coastal places have been developed.

                     The annual field researches of traces of adjournment paleotsunami and historical tsunami on Kamchatka and Kuril islands have been carried out. The obtained materials expand area of temporae scope of events for 10000 years and increase the catalogue of  tsunami on Pacific coast of Russia considerably.

 

 

Date:    02  july 2003

 

Name: I.P. Kuzminykh

 


National Report of the Republic of Korea

National Report of the Republic of Korea prepared for the ITSU-XIX Session 

NATIONAL REPORT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

Basic Information

 


1. ICG/ITSU National Contact:

 

Name:                    Woo, Duck-Mo

Organization:          Director, Earthquake Division, Korea Meteorological Administration

Postal Address:      Korea Meteorological Administration

      460-18, Sindaebang-dong, Dongjak-gu,

      Seoul, 156-720, REPUBLIC OF KOREA

E-mail Address:      This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Telephone Number: +82-2-843-4228

Fax Number:          +82-2-841-7664

Cellular Phone:       +82-17-327-8803

 

2. Primary Warning Recipient:

 

Name:                                       Woo, Duck-Mo

Organization:                              Director, Earthquake Division, Korea Meteorological Administration

Postal Address:                          Korea Meteorological Administration

                         460-18, Sindaebang-dong, Dongjak-gu,

                         Seoul, 156-720, REPUBLIC OF KOREA

E-mail Address :                        This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Emergency Telephone Number : +82-2-843-4228

Emergency Fax Number :          +82-2-841-7664

Emergency Cellular Phone :       +82-17-327-8803

 

Name :                                       Earthquake & Tsunami Monitoring Room

Postal Address :                         Korea Meteorological Administration

                         460-18, Sindaebang-dong, Dongjak-gu,

                         Seoul, 156-720, REPUBLIC OF KOREA

E-mail Address :                        This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Emergency Telephone Number : +82-2-841-7665

Emergency Fax Number :          +82-2-841-7664

 

 

3. Tsunami Advisor(s):

 

Name :                                      Woo, Duck-Mo

Organization :                            Director, Earthquake Division, Korea Meteorological Administration

Postal Address :                        Korea Meteorological Administration

                         460-18, Sindaebang-dong, Dongjak-gu,

                         Seoul, 156-720, REPUBLIC OF KOREA

E-mail Address :                        This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Emergency Telephone Number : +82-2-843-4228

Emergency Fax Number :          +82-2-841-7664

Emergency Cellular Phone :       +82-17-327-8803


4. Local and Distant Tsunami Procedure:

 

Organization: Earthquake Division, Korea Meteorological Administration

Director: Woo, Duck-Mo

 

Hours of Operation: 24 hours per day, 7 days per week

 

Activities: The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) announces tsunami advisories/warnings and gives coastal areas information on the occurrence of large earthquakes, tsunami generation, expected tsunami arrival time and wave height. It reports to the organs concerned such as governmental organizations and broadcasting stations.

 

Cancellation: The tsunami advisory/warning is cancelled when KMA concludes that the emergency situation is over and the sea level anomalies come to be below the danger level.

 

Criteria:

          Expected situation                                                            Action

             Occurrence of tsunami                                     Advisory

             Inundation of coastal areas by tsunami             Warning

 

5. National Sea-Level Network:

 

KMA operates a sea-level monitoring system on Ulleung-Island in the East Sea, the sea between Korea and Japan. The island is located about 130km from the eastern coast, so the early detection of a tsunami it can provide can be very useful in the issuance of a tsunami warning, by now. KMA has a plan to establish two more sea level monitoring systems for tsunami detection on the western and southern coasts of Korea by 2006.

 

 

6. Information on Tsunami Occurrences:

 

Korea is surrounded by three seas, including the East Sea, located between Korea and Japan. It has the potential for producing tsunamigenic earthquakes that might cause damage along the coasts of Korea and Japan.

 

In fact, in 1983 and 1993 two regional tsunamis, which were generated by earthquakes at the East Sea near Japan, caused damage along the eastern coast of Korea. As a result, a necessity for the establishment of a rapid warning system for regional tsunamis has been proposed to mitigate tsunami hazards.

 

 

SUMMARY

 


Korea has been a member of the International Co-ordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ICG/ITSU) since 1968. Since hosting the Seventeenth Session of ICG/ITSU at the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) in 1999, Korea has been increasingly aware of the importance of preparedness against tsunami hazards.

 

During the late 1990s, KMA was equipped with a nation-wide earthquake monitoring system, established by the Earthquake Division, and began to prepare for the tsunami warning system. The KMA has been reinforcing the national seismic network by introducing broadband seismometers and has been training for preparedness annually using simulated tsunamis.

As part of the international collaboration with the USA and Japan, KMA is exchanging tsunami information with the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). It also has a plan to exchange seismic data with the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention of Japan (NIED) in real time in order to mitigate tsunami disasters in Korea and Japan.

 

NARRATIVE

 


A. Seismic Activity during the Period of January 2001 to June 2003

 

One hundred and fourteen earthquakes occurred during the period of January 2001 to June 2003 in and around the vicinity of the Korean peninsula. The largest earthquake among these, with a huge magnitude of 5.0 on the Richter Scale, occurred on March 30, 2003 in the western sea area of Korean peninsula.

The annual frequency of earthquake occurrences in Korea are relatively higher now compared with before 2001, apparently due to the reinforcement of the seismic network of KMA.

 

 

Year

A

B

C

D

Total

2001

2002

2003

 

 

1

1

1

2

6

10

4

35

38

16

42

49

23

Total

1

4

20

89

114

 

A: Number of earthquakes whose magnitudes are between 5.0 - 5.9 on the Richter scale.

B: Number of earthquakes whose magnitudes are between 4.0 - 4.9 on the Richter scale.

C: Number of earthquakes whose magnitudes are between 3.0 - 3.9 on the Richter scale.

D: Number of earthquakes whose magnitudes are lower than 3.0 on the Richter scale.

 

B. Earthquake Monitoring System of KMA

 

In 1997, KMA started a project for strengthening the Korea National Seismographic Network (KNSN) and the tsunami warning system. The new network of seismographs, the construction of which was completed in 2002, is composed of 12 broad-band seismometers, 19 short-period seismometers and 75 accelerometers. This network was designed to provide an automated solution of seismic event for immediate response to tsunamigenic earthquakes. It records both the velocity and acceleration of the ground. It gives KMA complete digital data and works automatically.  When an earthquake occurs, the seismic signals are transmitted through KMA's intranet system to the central processing station. The recorded seismic waveform are analyzed and estimated automatically.

 

When an earthquake occurs, data gathered from each station are automatically analyzed within five minutes. In this way, a rapid tsunami warning can be issued at the moment of occurrence of a tsunamigenic earthquake near Korea.

 

C. Simulated Tsunami Preparedness Drill

 

KMA has been working to assure the promptness and accuracy of the announcements of tsunami information. In fact, detailed and rapid tsunami information for people residing in the possible areas of tsunami inundation is essential to mitigate tsunami hazards. For this reason, KMA has been executing simulated tsunami preparedness drills to evaluate the tsunami warning and notification system each year. KMA executed that drill on July 29, 2002 and will execute it again in June, 2003.

During the drills, KMA analyzes the magnitude and location of a virtual tsunamigenic earthquake as quickly as possible, and reports this information to the organs concerned. All the information acquired from the related organizations (PTWC, JMA, etc.) is also assembled. After that, KMA collects the returned messages from the organs and analyze them.

 

In these drills, KMA headquarters provide the simulated tsunami report to more than one hundred organs concerned including regional offices. The total number of concerned organs informed of tsunami information from local administrations is about eight hundred.

 

In order to check the communication system, KMA estimates the drill results made by the headquarters, the local administrations, observatories and other organs involved. The evaluation is based on the promptness and completeness of the sent and returned messages. This is to increase the efficiency of the drills and encourage the organs to act positively.

 

Problems appearing during the drills are discussed in detail to improve the tsunami warning system of KMA. KMA expects that this simulated preparedness drill will be helpful in mitigating tsunami hazards.

 

D. International Cooperation

 

As mentioned in the summary, KMA is currently exchanging tsunami information with PTWC and JMA as part of the international collaboration with the USA and Japan. When a large earthquake occurs outside Korea, KMA informs PTWC of the P-wave arrival time of the event, recorded in its seismic network, through the Global Telecommunication System and e-mail. KMA then receives information on the event as well as on tsunamis generated by the event from PTWC and JMA.

 

KMA will hold a workshop titled 'International Workshop on the Historical and Recent Earthquakes having occurred in the Korean Peninsula' in Cheju Island this year. Participants from China, Japan, Italia and Korea will discuss historical earthquakes and tsunamis, recent trends in earthquakes, and any areas of common interest. International collaboration will be reinforced in the near future. It is hoped this workshop will help in the evaluation of historical earthquakes, the basic information of the seismology and earthquake engineering in Korea.

 

The second working group meeting on seismological cooperation between the representatives of KMA and China Seismological Bureau (CSB) was held in Beijing, China on June 5, 2002. Both sides reached an agreement on the exchange of information, data and publications on earthquakes and the exchange of personnel. KMA proposed to conduct the joint research project regarding the study on the seismo-tectonic structure, seismicity and earthquake precursors in the Sino-Korean Platform and the CSB responded to the proposal positively. In this procedure, KMA invited one earthquake expert and performed joint research with CSB for four months in 2002.

 

KMA reached an agreement with NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention of Japan) to exchange seismological data between both organs in real time on May 21, 2003. The purpose of this cooperation is to improve the capability of monitoring seismic activity in and around Korea and Japan, and to mitigate earthquake and tsunami disasters in both countries. The contact points of both sides will discuss and determine the specific methods of implementation of the projects in detail.

 

E. Information for the General Public

 

KMA published four books on earthquakes and related fields from 2001 to June 2003.

 

In December 2001, KMA published a book titled 'The True Nature of Earthquakes', which describes the structure of the earth’s interior, the mechanism of earthquake occurrence, the principle of seismographs, the trend of earthquake occurrence, and preparedness against earthquakes, etc. It was published for ordinary people who are interested in earthquakes and earth science.

 

In March 2002, KMA published a book titled 'Earthquake Catalogue of 2001', which describes seismic activity in Korea, the historical and current status of the seismic network of KMA, major earthquakes with intensity maps, and provides a list, with epicentral maps, of the earthquakes which occurred in Korea in 2001.

 

In November 2002, KMA published a book titled 'Wow! This is an Earthquake!', which describes the appearance of earth, the interior of earth, earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, the earthquake and tsunami monitoring system of Korea, and preparations against earthquakes and tsunamis. This book was written in simple words for children.

 

In April 2003, KMA published a book titled 'Earthquake Catalogue of 2002', which describes seismic activity in Korea, the historical and current status of the seismic network of KMA, major earthquakes with intensity maps, and provides a list of the earthquakes which occurred in Korea in 2002 with epicentral maps, waveforms and P, S arrival times.

 

F. Research Activities in Korea

 

Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA)

 

A study for establishing the basis for a detection and analysis system of a tsunamigenic earthquake has been performed by KMA. That study includes such fields as a spatial study of the tsunamigenic earthquakes around Korea, a quantitative study of defining detection environment of the tsunamigenic earthquake, a study on establishing an algorithm for detecting the tsunamigenic earthquake, and a study of initial sea surface change due to tsunamigenic earthquakes.

 

A study on the tsunami itself has been also done. In this study, the propagation numerical model and the run-up model describing the transoceanic propagation across an ocean and associated run-up process along a shoreline, respectively, are investigated and updated. A database system of virtual tsunami events has also been made.

 

A study on establishing an algorithm for detecting the tsunamigenic earthquake has been performed using Borland C++ Builder 4.0 as a developing tool. Although this algorithm is not currently based on real-time analysis, it will be updated to handle real-time data soon. It uses GUI (graphic user interface) technology for presenting fault information as well as synthetic seismograms.

 

Others

 

Many researchers in universities involved with earthquakes and tsunamis take part in the activities of the Korea Earthquake Engineering Research Center (KEERC) by sharing information and research on earthquakes and tsunamis. A project on tsunamis, a subtask of the second phase of KEERC research (2000~2002), was carried out and the third phase (2003~2005) is being carried out now. At present, studies using the parallel FEM simulation model and prognostic tsunamis are being performed to produce inundation maps along the eastern coast of Korea.

 

In addition, National Institute for Disaster Prevention (NIDP) and Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) have performed numerical investigations of tsunami hazards of the East Sea or have a plan to study it with various methodologies this year.


National Report of the United States of America

NATIONAL REPORT OF THE USA, 2002-2003

  

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

            In the United States, the Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is operated by the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS).  Another component of NOAA, the National Ocean Service (NOS), is primarily responsible for the maintenance of US tide gauges in the TWS. Tsunami research is conducted by NOAA's Environmental Research Laboratories and by various universities under the direction of the National Science Foundation (NSF).  The World Data Center for Solid Earth Geophysics, including Tsunamis (WDC) is operated by NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data & Information Service (NESDIS), National Geophysical Data Center.  NESDIS also supports the TWS by providing communications from remote data platforms through NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES).  The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides support to the TWS by the use of its geostationary satellite (GMS) to transmit data from US tidal stations.  The US Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for seismological research and their National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) assists the TWS through the provision of real-time seismic data and in instrument maintenance and development.  The US also continues to host the International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC), as it has since the Centre’s inception in 1965, by providing personnel and administrative support for the Centre to carry out its mission in support of the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific.

 

        The US continues to operate two major Tsunami Warning Centers in support of the International Co-ordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ICG/ITSU). These Centers, the Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WC/ATWC) in Palmer, Alaska, have access to large arrays of seismic and tide stations, either directly via telemetry from remote locations or indirectly via messages from local observers.  The PTWC is the operations centre for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific. In this capacity the PTWC provides information on earthquakes in the Pacific basin to Member States of ITSU, as well as to others who may be threatened by tsunamis resulting from these earthquakes.  In response to recommendations approved at ITSU-XVIII, the procedures and criteria for issuing these bulletins were modified during the intersessional period.  The PTWC is also the national source of Tsunami Warnings, Watches, Advisories, and Information Bulletins for Hawaii, US possessions, and all other US interests in the Pacific located outside of the United States proper, and operates a Regional Tsunami Warning System for the State of Hawaii.  The WC/ATWC provides tsunami watches, warnings, information bulletins, and interpretative information to civilian and military officials in Alaska, Canada (British Columbia), Washington, Oregon, and California.  In performing this mission, its primary responsibility is the detection, location, and determination of magnitude of potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring in the area from Attu, Alaska to the southern California border. 

 

        The more significant developments that have occurred during the period since the Eighteenth include:  establishment of a real time satellite downlink hub for data from up to eight Pacific broadband seismic stations in cooperation with the Global Seismic Network (GSN) of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), installation of coastal run-up gauges to enable rapid confirmation of a potentially destructive local tsunami in Hawaii, the continued and expanded use of the Internet by the PTWC to collect Pacific wide seismic data, expansion of WC/ATWC’s wave forecast model routines to include more source and run-up areas around the Pacific and implementation of this software at PTWC to assist in warning decision-making, the deployment of six real-time, deep ocean tsunami detection systems (DART buoys) capable of detecting tsunami waves only a cm in height for quick tsunami confirmation and future development efforts at tsunami forecasting, implementation of new procedures as recommended by ITSU-XVIII including the use of Mw and issuance of more informative and effective bulletins, development of modular earthquake processing software and installation of Earthworm software for data collection and evaluation, implementation of backup capabilities by PTWC and WC/ATWC for each other’s center, enhancement of information products for potentially felt coastal earthquakes in the WC/ATWC Area of Responsibility, construction of a new WC/ATWC facility, continued production of inundation maps for coastal at-risk populations as necessary starting points for effective disaster planning and mitigation, and implementation of the TsunamiReady program as a means to actively engage local communities to prepare for tsunami hazards.

 

        The NWS Pacific Region continues to support the activities of the Tsunami Laboratory of the Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Novosibirsk, in the development of the Historical Tsunami Database/US (HTDB/US) that is designed to provide US Emergency Managers with easy access to historical tsunami data for their area of responsibility.  During 2001, the HTDB coverage area was extended from the Pacific (within 65°S to 65°N and 80°E to 50°W) to the Atlantic (within 60°S to 72°N and 100°W to 30°E).  In 2002, the updated versions of the WinHTDB graphic shells for both regions were finalized and distributed as region-specific WinHTDB/PAC and WinHTDB/ATL CD-ROMs, along with the Pacific and the Atlantic historical tsunami catalogs, the User’s Manuals and the HTDB/US Project Summary.  Work also continued to further verify and extend the tsunami event catalog and run-up catalogs for the Pacific and the Atlantic regions. 

 

        During the intersessional period in accordance with Paragraphs 162-164, of the ITSU XVIII Summary Report, relating to the World Data Center for Solid Earth Geophysics, regarding the development of a joint NGDC/NOAA-ICG/ITSU-IUGG/TC Pacific Tsunami database product, the NGDC, the NTL, and the ITIC, developed a plan to create a unified global historical tsunami database by merging the existing NTL HTDB/Pacific and Atlantic databases with the WDC/NGDC database, and establishing data quality standards and procedures for updating and collecting new event data.

 

        The NOS continues to maintain a network of the Next Generation Water Level Measurement Systems (NGWLMS) at tide gauge sites in the US National Water Level Observation Network and at selected international locations. Data from these units are accessible to the WC/ATWC and the PTWC to support the TWS.  As of 2002, 43 stations had been programmed to automatically convert to high frequency tsunami data acquisition mode whenever tsunami waves are detected. 

 

        The US, in Honolulu during February 2003, hosted a meeting of ITSU Officers in preparation for the Nineteenth Session of the Group.                                                                               

 

 

NARRATIVE

 

 

1.  POINTS OF CONTACT

 

Member since beginning of ICG/ITSU

 

A.  National Contact

Mr. Ralph J. (Jeff) LaDouce

Director, Pacific Region

National Weather Service

737 Bishop Street Suite 2200

Honolulu, HI 96813-2313

USA

Tel:  1-808-532-6416

Fax:  1-808-532-5569

E-mail:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

 

B.  Primary Warning Recipients:

Too numerous to list

 

 

C.  Tsunami Advisor(s):

Mr. LaDouce is also the USA National Tsunami Program Manager, and in this capacity, is responsible for the operations of the Tsunami Warning Centers.

 

 

D.  Tsunami Warning Centers

 

Hawaii and Pacific Basin

Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC)

Dr. Charles (Chip) McCreery, Geophysicist-in-Charge

91-270 Fort Weaver Road

Ewa Beach, HI 96706-2928

USA

Tel: 808-689-8207

Fax: 808-689-4543

E-mail:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California

West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WC/ATWC)

Mr. Paul Whitmore, Geophysicist-in-Charge

910 South Felton Street

Palmer, AK 99645

USA

Tel: 907-745-4212

Fax: 907-745-6071

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E.  Mitigation and Information Services

 

National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP)

Dr. Eddie Bernard, Steering Committee Chair

Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratories

7600 Sand Point Way, N.E.

Seattle, WA  98115

USA

Tel:  1-206-526-6800

Fax:  1-206-536-6815

 

International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC)

Dr. Laura Kong, Director

737 Bishop Street, Suite 2200

Honolulu, HI  96813

USA

Tel:  1-808-532-6422

Fax:  1-808-532-5576

Cellular phone:  1-808-265-7046

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)

Dr. Christopher G. Fox, Acting Director

National Geophysical Data Center 

325 Broadway, Code E/GC            

Boulder, CO 80303   

USA

Tel:  1-303-497-6215

Fax:  1-303-497-6386

 

 

2.  INTRODUCTION

 

            In the United States, the Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is operated by the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS).  Another component of NOAA, the National Ocean Service (NOS), is primarily responsible for the maintenance of US tide gauges in the TWS.  Tsunami research is conducted by NOAA's Environmental Research Laboratories and by various universities under the direction of the National Science Foundation (NSF).  The World Data Center for Solid Earth Geophysics, including Tsunamis (WDC) is operated by NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data & Information Service (NESDIS), National Geophysical Data Center.  NESDIS also supports the TWS by providing communications from remote data platforms through NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES).  The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides support to the TWS by the use of its geostationary satellite (GMS) to transmit data from US tidal stations.  The US Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for seismological research and their National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) assists the TWS through the provision of real-time seismic data and in instrument maintenance and development.  The US also continues to host the International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC), as it has since the Centre’s inception in 1965, by providing personnel and administrative support for the Centre to carry out its mission in support of the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific.

 

        The US continues to operate two major Tsunami Warning Centers in support of the International Co-ordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ICG/ITSU). These Centers, the Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WC/ATWC) in Palmer, Alaska, have access to large arrays of seismic and tide stations, either directly via telemetry from remote locations or indirectly via messages from local observers.

 

        The more significant developments that have occurred during the period since the Eighteenth include:  establishment of a real time satellite downlink hub for data from up to eight Pacific broadband seismic stations in cooperation with the Global Seismic Network (GSN) of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), installation of coastal run-up gauges to enable rapid confirmation of a potentially destructive local tsunami in Hawaii, the continued and expanded use of the Internet by the PTWC to collect Pacific wide seismic data, expansion of WC/ATWC’s wave forecast model routines to include more source and run-up areas around the Pacific and implementation of this software at PTWC to assist in warning decision-making, the deployment of six real-time, deep ocean tsunami detection systems (DART buoys) capable of detecting tsunami waves only a cm in height for quick tsunami confirmation and future development efforts at tsunami forecasting, implementation of new procedures as recommended by ITSU-XVIII including the use of Mw and issuance of more informative and effective bulletins, development of modular earthquake processing software and installation of Earthworm software for data collection and evaluation, implementation of backup capabilities by PTWC and WC/ATWC for each other’s center, enhancement of information products for potentially felt coastal earthquakes in the WC/ATWC Area of Responsibility, construction of a new WC/ATWC facility, continued production of inundation maps for coastal at-risk populations as necessary starting points for effective disaster planning and mitigation, and implementation of the TsunamiReady program as a means to actively engage local communities to prepare for tsunami hazards.

 

        The NWS Pacific Region continues to support the activities of the Tsunami Laboratory of the Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Novosibirsk, in the development of the Historical Tsunami Database/US (HTDB/US) that is designed to provide US Emergency Managers with easy access to historical tsunami data for their area of responsibility.  The HTDB/US supports a special option (“New Event”) enabling a quick search for the run-up data generated by historical tsunamigenic earthquakes within a circular area centered around a new event.  Additional features built in 2000 provide for tsunami hazard analysis through the calculation of the long-term tsunami risk for any particular coastal site should a sufficient number of historical run-up observations be available.  During 2001, the HTDB coverage area was extended from the Pacific (within 65°S to 65°N and  80°E to 50°W) to the Atlantic (within 60°S  to 72°N and  100°W to 30°E). In 2002, the updated versions of the WinHTDB graphic shells for both regions were finalized and distributed as region-specific WinHTDB/PAC and WinHTDB/ATL CD-ROMs, along with the Pacific and the Atlantic historical tsunami catalogs, the User’s Manuals and the HTDB/US Project Summary.  Work also continued to further verify and extend the tsunami event catalog and run-up catalogs for the Pacific and the Atlantic regions.  The updating of the Atlantic catalog was carried out in close cooperation with the Department of Marine Science of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPR), which was funded by the US Federal Emergency Management Agency project “Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program” to develop a Caribbean Historical Tsunami Database.  Currently, the UPR will be providing real-time seismic monitoring in support of a cooperative effort by the UPR and the NWS Pacific and Southern Regions and the NWS Forecast Office in San Juan, Puerto Rico, to implement a Regional Tsunami Warning System for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

 

        During the intersessional period in accordance with Paragraphs 162-164, of the ITSU XVIII Summary Report, relating to the World Data Center for Solid Earth Geophysics, regarding the development of a joint NGDC/NOAA-ICG/ITSU-IUGG/TC Pacific Tsunami database product, the NGDC, the NTL, and the ITIC, developed a plan to create a unified global historical tsunami database by merging the existing NTL HTDB/Pacific and Atlantic databases with the WDC/NGDC database, and establishing data quality standards and procedures for updating and collecting new event data.  A meeting was held with the participants and other TWS users during the IUGG Meeting in Sapporo, Japan in July 2003 to discuss and approve of the collaborative plan.  See NGDC report for additional details.

 

        The NWS Pacific Region continues to work with PEACESAT to make the data on EMWIN also available on PEACESAT.  The transmission of the EMWIN data stream began in September 2000.  Data availability is currently limited due to drift of the GOES-7 satellite being used for the broadcast.

 

        The NOS continues to maintain a network of the Next Generation Water Level Measurement Systems (NGWLMS) at tide gauge sites in the US National Water Level Observation Network and at selected international locations. Data from these units are accessible to the WC/ATWC and the PTWC to support the TWS.  As of 2002, 43 stations had been programmed to automatically convert to high frequency tsunami data acquisition mode whenever tsunami waves are detected.  In this triggered mode, which can also be enabled manually by dialing up the station via modem, water level measurements are collected at one-minute intervals and transmitted via the GOES satellite every six minutes until signals abate.  The tsunami transmissions are sent on channels designated for emergency transmissions. 

 

        The US, in Honolulu during February 2003, hosted a meeting of ITSU Officers in preparation for the Nineteenth Session of the Group.                                                                               

 

 

3.  TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER ACTIVITIES

 

Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC)

 

        The PTWC is the operations centre for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific. In this capacity the PTWC provides information on earthquakes in the Pacific basin to Member States of ITSU, as well as to others who may be threatened by tsunamis resulting from these earthquakes. This information usually takes the form of Tsunami Bulletins issued for Warnings, Watches, Advisories, and for Information only. In response to recommendations approved at ITSU-XVIII, the procedures and criteria for issuing these bulletins were modified during the intersessional period as described in Section D of this report. The PTWC is also the national source of Tsunami Warnings, Watches, Advisories, and Information Bulletins for Hawaii, US possessions, and all other US interests in the Pacific located outside of the United States proper. Lastly, the PTWC operates the Regional Tsunami Warning Network for the State of Hawaii (HRTWN). In this capacity, the PTWC provides rapid warnings to the State of Hawaii for tsunamis generated by large local earthquakes associated primarily with Hawaii's active volcanoes.

 

A.  Tsunami Watches and Warnings

 

        During the intersessional period covering the interval from June 2001 through May 2003, the PTWC issued regional Warning/Watch Bulletins in response to major earthquakes on four occasions. Tsunamis were generated on all four occasions, and one caused numerous casualties.

 

        At 2033Z on 23 June 2001, a magnitude 8.4 (Harvard Mw) earthquake occurred at 16.0S, 73.3W, near the southern Pacific coast of Peru. An initial regional warning and watch for the area was issued by the PTWC at 2114Z. The size of the earthquake, the largest worldwide in more than thirty years, and the presence of tsunami waves measuring more than a meter in height on gauges at several widespread locations along the South American coast, raised concern that a destructive tsunami might be crossing the Pacific. After the issuance of seven more bulletins, approximately one per hour, that incrementally expanded the warning and watch areas, the warning was cancelled on June 24, 2003, at 0503Z when tsunami wave readings from the sea level gauge at Easter Island showed only a 0.4-meter height. Although widespread tsunami damage was not reported for this event, run-ups exceeded 8m near the coastal town of Camana, Peru, and up to 70 casualties were attributable to the tsunami.

 

A magnitude 7.6 earthquake occurred at 3.3S 143.0E, near the north coast of Papua New Guinea on 8 September 2002, at 1844Z. The PTWC initially issued a Tsunami Information Bulletin based on a preliminary magnitude of 7.4, then upgraded to a regional warning and watch a few minutes later when the magnitude grew to 7.6 based on additional data. The warning was cancelled at 2153Z based on only a 10cm height tsunami signal at the Manus Island gauge and no tsunami signal at the Kapingamaragi Island gauge. Although a local tsunami was generated by this event, run-ups along nearby coasts were generally less than a meter and no tsunami-related casualties were reported.

 

At 0843Z on 20 January 2003, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake occurred at 10.5S 160.8E, in the vicinity of the Solomon Islands.  The PTWC initially issued a Tsunami Information bulletin based on a preliminary Richter magnitude of 7.3, but a regional warning and watch was issued about half-an-hour later when the magnitude grew to 7.7. The warning was cancelled at 1037Z when data received from the nearby sea level gauge at Honiara showed a tsunami signal only a few cm in height.  A 2m wave was reported at Makira Island near Guadalcanal, but no damages, casualties, or injuries are known to have occurred.

 

A magnitude 7.3 earthquake struck near the Pacific coast of Mexico near Colima on January 22, 2003, at 0207Z. The PTWC issued a regional warning and watch for this event based on a preliminary magnitude of 7.6. The warning was cancelled at 0259Z following a revision of the magnitude to 7.3 based on additional data. This event generated a local tsunami that registered on the nearby sea level gauge at Manzanillo with a height of 1.2m. Coastal flooding from this tsunami apparently did not occur as tsunami waves did not exceed normal high tide levels.  No damages or casualties were reported.

 

One additional tsunami occurred in Vanuatu on January 3, 2002 from a magnitude 7.5 earthquake that occurred at 1723Z. It registered 0.4m in height on the sea level gauge at nearby Port Villa. The PTWC only issued a Tsunami Information Bulletin for this event as its magnitude was below the threshold for a warning.

 

        A total of forty Tsunami Information Bulletins were issued for shallow Pacific earthquakes with magnitudes between 6.5 and 7.5. Four hundred and two observatory messages were issued in response to earthquakes that triggered PTWC seismic alarms. These messages, sent primarily to other geophysical observatories, provide PTWC's preliminary earthquake location and magnitude. Twenty-three Local Tsunami Information Bulletins were issued to the State of Hawaii as a result of local earthquakes. No Local Tsunami Warning Bulletins were issued.

 

B.  Seismic Programme

 

        The PTWC's seismic programme continues to derive significant benefits as a result of the Consolidated Reporting of Earthquakes and Tsunamis (CREST) co-operative programme with the US Geological Survey (USGS).  This programme provides dedicated digital communication links between PTWC and the USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in Golden, Colorado, as well as to the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) on the island of Hawaii for the exchange of seismic waveform and parametric data. It also continues to support USGS-developed ‘Earthworm’ hardware and software to facilitate the exchange and processing of these data.

 

        For the local tsunami problem, PTWC receives continuous digital waveform data from thirty HVO seismic stations using the Earthworm system and CREST data link.  It also continues to operate an array of ten seismic stations in Hawaii that provide telemetered waveform data from four islands in the Hawaiian chain.  In addition, PTWC receives continuous waveform data from eight stations of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory over a radio/microwave link, and first arrival parametric data from more than 50 HVO stations over both the Internet and a dedicated circuit. These data enable PTWC to automatically determine earthquake hypocenters in less than a minute, and to interactively determine the event magnitude in less than five minutes.

 

        For teleseismic earthquakes, PTWC receives continuous digital broadband seismic waveform data from more than eighty stations worldwide using the Earthworm system and CREST data link to NEIC. For redundancy, PTWC receives much of the same broadband data directly from a variety of other sources including some of the US regional seismic networks. During the intersessional period a cooperative programme was established with the Global Seismic Network (GSN) of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) to have PTWC serve as a real time satellite downlink hub for data from up to eight Pacific broadband seismic stations.  Links are now operational with stations at Pitcairn Island, Wake Island, Easter Island, and Midway Island.  The PTWC also receives parametric hypocenter and first arrival data from other USGS observatories over the Internet. In addition, first arrival data is received following each significant earthquake from many co-operating international observatories in the Pacific region. The PTWC also operates three-component short and long period seismometers and an STS-2 three-component broadband seismometer in a seismic vault just a few hundred meters from its operations center. These combined data enable PTWC to determine preliminary earthquake locations and magnitudes for any Pacific earthquake in less than ten minutes, and to utilize the most modern seismic analysis techniques for determining earthquake parameters useful for tsunami warning decision-making.

 

C.  Sea-Level Programme

 

        For tsunamis generated within the State of Hawaii, the PTWC operates an array of eight continuous real-time telemetered sea-level gauges.  The PTWC also operates an array of seven dial-up gauges that can be accessed as needed. To supplement these data, PTWC and the State of Hawaii have added an array of eight run-up gauges along coasts where historical local tsunamis have struck. Based on home security alarm technology, these inexpensive gauges will alert PTWC within about 40 seconds of being flooded and provide the most rapid confirmation that a potentially destructive local tsunami is underway.

 

For tsunamis generated elsewhere in the Pacific, PTWC receives data from more than 90 sea-level gauges, most of which transmit their data back to the center through either the GOES or GMS satellite on schedules that range from once per hour to once every three hours.  About twenty of these gauges are operated and maintained by PTWC, while the rest belong to other organizations, including WC/ATWC, the US National Ocean Survey (NOS), the University of Hawaii Sea-Level Center (UHSLC), the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA), the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), and Australia's National Tidal Facility (NTF). PTWC also receives real time data from eight Alaska sea level stations operated by WC/ATWC. In addition, PTWC is now receiving data from six deep ocean pressure sensors that are capable of detecting tsunami waves only a cm in height. Three are south of the Aleutian Islands, two are off the US West Coast, and one is in the southeast Pacific, just south of the equator. Developed by the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory and now operated by the US National Weather Service's National Data Buoy Center, these 'Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis' (DART) instruments provide the only accurate measure of a tsunami as it propagates in deep water, and will provide a key input for future tsunami forecasting using numerical models. Additional DART buoys are scheduled for deployment in coming years, including one that was purchased by Hydrographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA) for installation in the Fall, 2003.

 

D.    Procedures

 

Effective June 21, 2003, the PTWC made the following changes to its international tsunami warning and information products, and the procedures used for issuing those products:

 

1.   The earthquake magnitude reported in the bulletins and used in criteria for determining the type of bulletin to issue is now the moment magnitude, Mw, instead of the Richter surface wave magnitude, Ms.  Mw values are similar to Ms values for most shallow earthquakes.  However, Mw provides a more accurate scale for very large earthquakes and for slowly rupturing earthquakes that have an enhanced tsunamigenic potential.  Mw is also the standard magnitude now used by most seismic observatories.

 

2.  Tsunami Information Bulletins (TIB) continue to be issued for shallow Pacific earthquakes with magnitudes between 6.5 and 7.5, inclusive.  However, a TIB supplement will now be issued if data from nearby sea level gauges indicate a local tsunami was generated.  A TIB will now also be issued for certain large Pacific region earthquakes that do not pose a tsunami threat to the Pacific Basin because they are inland or deep or are in a marginal sea.

 

3.  A Spanish-language version of the Tsunami Information Bulletin, formerly sent to a few locations in South America, will be replaced by the English-language version.  This change is being made to eliminate the potential for confusion when PTWC staff make changes to pre-scripted language of the English version to accommodate a particular situation, but are unable to compose similar changes in the Spanish version.

 

4.  A non-expanding regional warning, limited in areal extent to 1000 km from the earthquake epicenter, will be issued for shallow Pacific earthquakes with magnitudes between 7.6 and 7.8, inclusive.

 

5.  An expanding regional tsunami warning and watch, formerly issued for shallow Pacific earthquakes with magnitudes of 7.6 or greater, will now only be issued for magnitudes of 7.9 or greater.

 

6.  A number of additional warning points have been added. Warning points are locations used to determine if an area should be in a warning or watch based either on that point’s distance from the epicenter or on the time remaining until the estimated arrival of the first tsunami wave at that point. The additional warning points are needed to improve the coverage and accuracy of warning and watch areas.  Estimated arrival times will continue to be provided in bulletins for all warning points within warning and watch areas.

 

7.  A few format changes have been made to the bulletins.  Notable is that the earthquake parameters are now in a tabular rather than narrative form. In addition, the geographic coordinates of warning points are now provided whenever estimated arrival times for those points are listed in the bulletins.

 

        The purpose of these changes is to help reduce the problem of over-warning, to provide more comprehensive and accurate warning and watch areas, and to otherwise make the bulletins more informative and effective. These changes are largely the result of recommendations made and approved at ITSU-XVIII.

 

E.  Message Dissemination

 

        The PTWC bulletins are disseminated through a wide variety of communication methods.  Bulletins in text form are transmitted over the Global Telecommunications System (GTS), the NOAA Weather Wire (NWW), the Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network (AFTN), the Emergency Managers Weather Information Network (EMWIN), the US Defense Communications System (DCS), soon to be replaced by the Defense Messaging System or (DMS), the Hawaii Interisland Data Network (IDN), and TELEX. Bulletins are also transmitted by voice over a dedicated Hawaii Warning System (HAWAS) telephone, and by e-mail and fax.

 

 

West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WC/ATWC)

 

        The mission of the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WC/ATWC) is to provide tsunami watches, warnings, information bulletins, and interpretative information to civilian and military officials in Alaska, Canada (British Columbia), Washington, Oregon, and California.  In performing this mission, its primary responsibility is the detection, location, and determination of magnitude of potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring in the area from Attu, Alaska to the southern California border.  The WC/ATWC has this same responsibility for tsunamis generated by earthquakes located outside the WC/ATWC area of responsibility.  The WC/ATWC also provides, within established criteria, earthquake parameters and other associated information to appropriate national and international interests.  Although numerous non-tsunamigenic earthquakes are automatically detected and processed each month, only a small number of these earthquakes are released to officials and the public.

 

            WC/ATWC personnel continue to conduct applied research and development to improve the present system, plus continue to analyze collected data. The Center is highly automated for processing earthquakes and disseminating critical information to intended recipients.  The earthquake processing software developed at the WC/ATWC, known as EarlyBird, has been re-written to run under the Earthworm platform.  The real-time system has been re-configured into approximately 12 modules.  The modules operate independently, though interact through Earthworm message structures.  Three new magnitude techniques have been incorporated into the EarlyBird system.  The Mwp magnitude, under development for the past several years, is now fully integrated into the system.  The Mm (Mw) magnitude technique, developed by the Centre Polynesien de Prevention des Tsunamis in Tahiti, French Polynesia and provided by the PTWC, has also been implemented as an EarlyBird module.  Lastly, WC/ATWC has been working with the NEIC to implement their automated CMT technique as an EarlyBird module.  This implementation is still under development.  The EarlyBird system software was provided to both the National Earthquake Information Center and the Puerto Rico seismic network in 2002/2003.

 

A.  Tsunami Products

 

        During the intersessional period, no tsunami watches or warnings were issued by the WC/ATWC. However, having responded to some 554 earthquake alarms, a total of three Tsunami Advisory Bulletins, 27 Tsunami Information Bulletins, 101 Information Messages, and 143 P-time messages were issued.

 

        Backup procedures between PTWC and WC/ATWC were improved significantly in the last two years.  Both centers are now capable of providing each other’s services in the event of a catastrophic failure at either center.  The centers are also capable of providing a limited set of products through selected communication paths in the event that either center has an outage in just one of their pathways.

 

        A new national policy directive and procedural instructions controlling both centers’ operations were issued in May, 2003.  Main procedures for the WC/ATWC stayed essentially the same, though there were some significant changes for the PTWC; those affecting the international tsunami warning system were implemented by PTWC on June 21, 2003, and are described in Section D.  Procedures, of the PTWC report.  Some of the changes impacting the WC/ATWC are: moment magnitude is the preferred method of sizing earthquakes; tsunami warnings can be left in effect for certain areas of the AOR and not enlarged with each new message; and backup procedures for PTWC were changed.

 

        The WC/ATWC, in conjunction with the USGS and west coast states, has refined response criteria for potentially-felt coastal earthquakes within the AOR.  Information message products are issued when earthquakes between magnitude 4 and 5 occur within 50km of the coast, earthquakes between magnitude 5 and 6 occur within 150km of the coast, or earthquakes between magnitude 6 and 6.5 occur within 250km of the coast.  Earthquakes located in any west coast state, Alaska, or British Columbia over magnitude 6.5 will prompt the issuance of a tsunami information bulletin.

 

B.  Seismic and Tide Data Acquisition

 

        The WC/ATWC continues to maintain a network of 15 seismic sites located at remote places from the far western Aleutians to Sitka, Alaska, and local sites that are within driving distance from Palmer. The data are telemetered to the WC/ATWC for real-time processing and are recorded on computer disk.  The WC/ATWC has proposed upgrading the aging analog telemetry equipment to a modern, satellite-based system.  To this point, the proposed system has not been funded.  The USGS Earthworm system is used to exchange the seismic data with other centers. Approximately 100 channels of seismic data are recorded and processed at the WC/ATWC. The WC/ATWC exchanges real-time seismic data with the USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC), University of Alaska, Alaska Volcano Observatory, PTWC, USGS Menlo Park Observatory, University of Washington, University of Oregon, Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, the southern California Seismic Network, and the Pacific Geosciences Centre in Canada. 

 

        The WC/ATWC has access to more than 100 tide sites throughout the Pacific Basin. Most are maintained by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS). In addition to the NOS sites, other tide gauge networks are operated by agencies such as the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, Japan Meteorological Agency, and others. The WC/ATWC maintains real-time telemetry equipment at seven NOS gauges in Alaska, and fully maintains an eighth tide gauge at Shemya, Alaska.  Since the last National Report, the instrumentation at Shemya has been replaced with an above-water, radar pinging device.  This device is proving to be a robust method for obtaining water-level data at remote sites.

 

C.  Instrumentation, Maintenance, and Calibrations

 

        The WC/ATWC continues to maintain its seismic network throughout Alaska, the Shemya tide site, and WC/ATWC's transmitters at each of the NOS tide sites.  Equipment maintenance, additions, calibrations, and developments are on-going functions at the WC/ATWC's Center and field sites.  Field sites are visited yearly or as soon as possible after equipment failure.  At the Center, the incoming seismic and tide data are recorded on computer disk.  The equipment and systems are monitored daily, by personnel and by other electronic equipment, to ensure a continuous data flow to the Center.  Preventative maintenance, calibrations, and parts replacements are performed for all remote seismic and tide equipment, and for major equipment systems in the Center. 

 

        An in-depth information technology (IT) study of the two warning centers was completed in late 2002 by senior NOAA IT experts.  Several recommendations were made in the study to enhance the WC/ATWC and PTWC’s IT structure.  The two centers are presently creating a plan to implement the recommendations.

 

D.  Communications Systems

 

        Methods for disseminating emergency and routine information are via the National Warning System (NAWAS), Alaska Warning System (AKWAS), National Weather Wire System (NWWS), VHF radio system, Federal Aviation Administration NADIN2 system, dedicated NWS circuits, commercial telephones, Alaska Division of Emergency Services, NOAA Weather Radio, Coast Guard HF Marine Weather Radio, Emergency Alert System (EAS) through the National Weather Service, the NWS Emergency Manager’s Weather Information Network (EMWIN),  web page posting, pager notification, and e-mail. The NAWAS, a voice disseminating system, NWWS, NADIN2, and dedicated NWS circuitry are the primary systems used to alert disaster officials in the US and Canada of large earthquakes.  The AKWAS, which is the State side of NAWAS, permits immediate voice communication with Alaska disaster officials.  The NWWS, NADIN2 system, and NWS circuitry provide recipients with hard copies of watch/warning and other information.  Web Page updates, pagers and e-mail are considered secondary systems.  All of these systems are monitored and tested daily to ensure that they are operational.  The primary systems are also tested monthly using warning product headers.  Message receipt at the main communication facilities is verified.

 

E.  Community Preparedness

 

            The WC/ATWC continues to provide a three-part community preparedness program which includes (1) visits to distant coastal communities from Shemya to Southern California; (2) visits to local groups, facilities and schools that are within commuting distance of the Center; and (3) tours of the WC/ATWC's facilities. Public tours of the center are offered weekly on Fridays at 1PM, 2PM and 3PM.

            Some community preparedness is also done via email and telephone for special projects. Presentations in the community preparedness program usually include: a slide presentation concerning the origin and nature of earthquakes and tsunamis; a community's particular hazard potential and their expected response; and a summary of the Center’s operations, missions, and capabilities.

            During this reporting period, the WC/ATWC staff visited 15 Alaskan communities and participated in several mitigation meetings on the West Coast.  The National Weather Service’s TsunamiReady program, which was launched in 2001, has captured the interest of numerous at-risk coastal communities in Alaska, Washington, Oregon and California.  To date 8 communities have been designated as TsunamiReady communities (Sitka, Seward, and Homer Alaska; Crescent City, California; Cannon Beach, Oregon; and Ocean Shores, Long Beach, and Quinalt Reservation in Washington). The program is based on the NWS ‘StormReady’ program with the purpose of increasing communication between the Warning Centers and participating communities, and improving tsunami hazard planning and awareness in the community. 

 

F.  Facilities

 

In April 2002. a ground-breaking ceremony was held on the Palmer, Alaska property for a new building to house the Center.  Construction was completed in May 2003 and the move to the new facility was completed in June 2003.  The modernized facility contains such upgraded features as a Conference room, a dedicated Electronics workshop, a Command & Control style operations console, raised flooring for computer and network cabling, modular office furniture, a reference library, and separate men’s and women’s bathrooms.  The building was built with special consideration to energy-efficient usage and is provided with handicap access throughout.

 

         RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

 

The US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

 

The following provides an executive summary of the individual reports for the five recommendations described in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Implementation Plan. Each individual report describes the recommendation, what has been accomplished, and the impact of these accomplishments toward reducing the impact of tsunamis to US coastal communities. The summary report is organized to provide background, accomplishments and impact for each recommendation; a summary of future recommendations; identification of gaps in the present plan; and options for the future.

 

A.  Background

 

        The April 1992 California earthquake and tsunami brought into focus that the west coast of the US has a major subduction zone capable of producing destructive tsunamis. The 1992 tsunami raised the question as to the preparedness level of west coast residents to a local tsunami. In July 1994, the Senate Appropriations Committee directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Agency responsible for issuing tsunami warnings, to formulate a plan for reducing the tsunami risks to coastal residents. Within 10 months, NOAA hosted three workshops involving over 50 scientists, emergency planners, and emergency operators from all levels of governments and universities and produced 12 recommendations, which were submitted to the Committee in March 1995.  In October 1995, the Committee directed NOAA to form and lead a Federal/State working group to (1) review the 12 recommendations submitted in the 1995 NOAA Report, and (2) develop an action plan and budget.  In February 1996, NOAA formed the Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Federal/State Working Group, composed of representatives from the States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington, and three Federal agencies - NOAA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the United States Geological Survey.  By April 1996, the Working Group produced and submitted a Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Implementation Plan that provided technical and budgetary guidance for the implementation of five specific Program recommendations:

 

·         Produce Inundation Maps

·         Improve Seismic Networks

·         Deploy Tsunami Detection Buoys

·         Develop Hazard Mitigation Programs

·         Develop State/NOAA Co-ordination and Technical Support

 

        These recommendations have been carried out over the past 7 years under the guidance of the Federal/State National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Steering Group. The Steering Group met twice each year to make funding decisions on the five elements, to report progress, and to make adjustments in the Program. Through the use of a web site, e-mails, telephone conference calls, and numerous individual meetings and telephone calls, the Group functioned as a team in implementing the Plan. The web site (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami-hazard/) contains the minutes for each meeting including progress reports for each element. The web site, designed and maintained by NOAA’s Ann Thomason, has also become a valuable Group resource and has won a Key Link web award for its tsunami information content.

 

        Since 1995, the media has shown exceptional interest in tsunami mitigation by broadcasting about 255 stories or about one per week.  Tsunami stories related to the Program were included in newspapers, magazine articles, television news stories, television documentaries, radio programs, web stories, trade publications, books, and one comic strip.

 

        Funding of US$2.3M was provided on a year-by-year basis for FY 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 through the Congressional add-on process. For FY 2002, the program became part of NOAA’s base budget. In FY 2003 the budget was increased to $4.3M.

 

B.    The Five Recommendations: Budgets, Accomplishments, and Impact

 

1. Produce tsunami inundation maps

 

a.    Accomplishments

i.                     Inundation Maps.  Since the 2001 report, eight inundation modeling and mapping efforts were completed that covered 37 communities with a population at risk of 516,846.  This brings the grand totals to 27 inundation modeling and mapping efforts completed for 125 communities with a population at risk of 1,637,212.

 

ii.                    SIFT Prototype.  A prototype system for forecasting tsunamis has been developed by Project SIFT (Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis), a collaboration of the NOAA Center for Tsunami Inundation Mapping Efforts (TIME), the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers and academic scientists.  SIFT combines numerical modeling and real-time tsunami measurement technologies.  The current prototype provides offshore forecasts, advanced versions will provide site-specific forecasts of tsunami inundation.

b.  Impact

i.                     Inundation Maps: A tsunami inundation map is a clarifying, galvanizing catalyst for action by Emergency Managers and citizens alike.  Once a map is completed and available for study, previously vague concerns and abstract issues are suddenly and immediately clarified and rendered concrete.  At this moment, effective, community-specific planning is truly begun – individual hazards can be identified and mitigation measures can be developed and implemented that are specific to that hazard.  A map is thus the fundamental starting point for any effective planning and mitigation program, aiding the evaluation of critical issues such as population and infrastructure vulnerability, and the identification of feasible evacuation routes.

ii.                   SIFT Prototype:  This prototype and more advanced versions of SIFT will improve the speed and accuracy of tsunami warnings and reduce the number of false alarms.

 

c.    Research/Emergency management partnership: Because the academic scientists are well-respected and influential members of the tsunami research community, their vigorous involvement in hazard mitigation issues has had an important positive impact on the relationship of the tsunami research community to the emergency management community.

 

2.  Improve Seismic

a.  Accomplishments

i.          Seismic Stations: Installed 56 real-time, broadband, seismic stations in five states.

ii.          Software: Installed Earthworm software at each NOAA warning center that allows access to data from regional and global seismic networks.

iii.         Infrastructure Development:  The Earthworm software has become a NOAA standard for linking all of the seismic networks in the US. This infrastructure now enables the tsunami warning centers to take advantage of improvements in seismic monitoring capability nationwide, as well as globally, even though such improvements may be undertaken by other monitoring agencies and organizations.

b.  Impact

i.          US earthquakes: Alaska, Hawaii, West Coast: Reduced the time required to locate and determine magnitude has decreased from 8 minutes to 2 minutes (if staff is on site).

ii.          Earthquakes outside the US: The time required to locate the earthquake is still governed by the time it takes for the P-waves to reach the most distant station in the network.  Formerly, it would take 8-16 minutes to locate an earthquake, but now the time has been shortened to 1-12 minutes.  The time to determine magnitude has decreased from 5-55 minutes to 2-20 minutes.

 

3.  Deployed Tsunami Detection

a.  Accomplishments

i.           Developed and field tested a real-time, deep ocean, tsunami detection system, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis  (DART) buoy system, using acoustic modem technology, satellite telemetry, redundant electronics, and world wide web dissemination of data (http://tsunami.pmel.noaa.gov:88/examples/jsp/wavewatcher/rtdart.jsp)

ii.          Prototype DART averaged 95% data return over past 2 years.

iii.                  Deployed six-DART array as originally recommended since October 2001

.

b.  Impact

i.          Tests and three earthquakes demonstrated that DART performed as designed.

ii.          Major upgrade in tsunami data acquisition for NOAA’s warning centers.

iii.         Using DART data and numerical models, a NOAA tsunami forecasting capability is being developed.

iv.         Met goal of Quickly Confirm Potentially Destructive Tsunamis and Reduce False Alarms.

 

4.  Develop Hazard Mitigation Programs

a.  Accomplishments

i.           Standardized tsunami evacuation and hazard zone road signs.

ii.          Published a strategic plan (Dengler, 1998).

iii.         Published a progress report (Jonientz-Trisler).

iv.         Published a Survival booklet (Atwater, 1999).

v.          Published Designing for Tsunamis guide for local communities (Mintier, 2000).

vi.         Published TsuInfo Newsletter 6 times/year.

vii.Sponsored one multi-state workshop on local warnings and over 20 workshops within states for education, co-ordination, and inundation map review.

 

b.  Impact:  Based on two west coast surveys of emergency management community - a few findings are listed below.

i.          Percent able to use tsunami messages doubled from 41% in 1994 to 86% in 2001.

ii.          Seventy-five percent indicate improvements since 1994.

iii.         Key factor on improvement is better planning and co-ordination.

iv.         Majority believes more improvements will take place if public education and better technology are emphasized.

 

5.  Develop state/NOAA coordination and technical support:

a.  Accomplishments

i.          Ten warning coordinating meteorologists were trained in tsunami warning procedures.

ii.          Each state has some tsunami infrastructure in place to co-ordinate tsunami activities.

iii.         Developed and distributed historical tsunami database (HTDB/US project).

iv.         Developed agreement between NOAA and USGS to distribute information on small earthquakes via the Emergency Managers Weather Information Network (EMWIN).

v.         Assisted in relocation of NOAA weather radio transmitter to provide better coverage of Washington coastline.

b.  Impact

i.                     Assimilated products from NTHMP into a TsunamiReady program that recognizes

communities that have met minimum criteria to properly respond to NOAA tsunami warnings.

 

C.  Conclusion

 

The first 7 years of the NTHMP has met the initial goals of the program outlined in the Implementation Plan to raise awareness of the affected populations, supply evacuation maps, improve tsunami warning systems, and institutionalize mitigation planning. The culmination of these efforts has enabled the concept of certifying communities as TsunamiReady to become a reality.  The TsunamiReady community will save lives within that community. For the community to survive the next tsunami, however, the community must become tsunami resistant. This requires a community to examine its vulnerability to tsunamis and make appropriate adjustments in the community infrastructure. The goals of the next five years are to significantly increase the number of tsunami ready communities and develop the tools necessary to become tsunami resistant.

 

 

5.  INTERNATIONAL TSUNAMI INFORMATION CENTRE (ITIC)

 

            The ITIC continues to receive support at a stable level from the United States through its National Weather Service.  The United States recognizes the importance of the role of the ITIC in the international aspects of the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) as a day-to-day monitor of the performance of the System and as a source of information on the operations of tsunami warning systems and tsunamis in general.  The ITIC carries out its mission through the direct efforts of its Director, Dr. Laura Kong, and her Technical and Office Assistant, Linda Sjogren.  Dr. Kong replaced Michael Blackford, who retired in January, 2002.  In addition, the ITIC continues to receive assistance from Cmdr. Rodrigo Nunez as Associate Director operating out of his office in Valparaiso, Chile, where he is a member of the Chilean Navy Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service.  During the Fall, 2003, ITIC hired Tammy Kaitoku as its Internet Web Resource to improve and enhance its Web information services.  In order to provide participants in ITSU with the timeliest information on the status of the System, the ITIC continually updates its web site with news of events and releases of papers and documents pertinent to the System, and additionally provides general information on the tsunami phenomenon and hazard preparedness of interest to the public.  Through the efforts of Cmdr. Nunez, much of this information is also presented in Spanish.  The ITIC presently maintains two sites, one in the USA and one in Chile; at the end of the calendar year 2003, the Chile site will close and all files and resources will be transferred to the ITIC USA web site and the newly-created ITSU web site. 

 

            The ITIC Tsunami Newsletter is produced in-house in full-color on a bi-monthly basis, and distributed both as hard copies and electronically as a downloadable PDF-format file through the ITIC and ITSU Web Sites.  Work is progressing on the completion of the ITIC Annual for 2000-2001 during 2003, which is meant to provide its reader with a detailed overview of ITSU and the regional or national tsunami warning systems of its Member States; the 2002-2003 Annual will be published in 2004.  The ITIC continues to conduct its Annual Visiting Experts Programme (now renamed to be the ICG/ITSU Training Programme), which brings two visiting scientists each year to ITIC to learn about tsunamis and tsunami warning systems.  During the summer, 2003, the ITIC library reference database was placed online on the ITIC USA Web Site, thus making it possible for the public to obtain listings of reference materials based on keyword searches of its library collection. The ITIC also maintains the Tsunami Bulletin Board (TBB) list serve as an informational clearinghouse for tsunami researchers and other scientists.  During the fall, 2003, the ITIC will move the TBB from its aging Sun computer text-based list serve to a web-enhanced version capable of more efficiently posting and archiving tsunami discussion subjects and other graphical products. 

 

            In addition to its tasks related to the operation of ITSU and action items generated by the International Co-ordinating Group of ITSU at its meetings, ITIC participates in many outreach programmes in tsunami education and tsunami awareness undertaken in Hawaii.  The ITIC, through its Director, also participates in the USA National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Programme, as a liaison to the international tsunami warning programme and its mitigation efforts.  These national programmes provide the ITIC with valuable experience in evaluating those programmes that are most effective in giving vulnerable populations the necessary information that can be used to protect them in actual life threatening tsunami events.  The ITIC continues to provide many booklets and pamphlets on tsunamis and tsunami warning systems to such programmes.  During the intersessional period, the following informational materials were revised or created:  the brochure, ‘Tsunami, the Great Waves’ was revised and reprinted in English; the English TWSP and ITIC informational brochures were revised and made available as downloadable PDF-format files; and tsunami safety magnets, stickers, and bookmarks were created in English and Spanish.

 

 

6.  NATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL DATA CENTER (NGDC) & WORLD DATA CENTER (WDC) FOR SOLID EARTH GEOPHYSICS, BOULDER

 

            The World Data Center for Solid Earth Geophysics, including tsunamis (WDC) is operated by NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). NGDC is one of three environmental data centers within the National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS).  Operating both National and World Data Centers, NGDC acquires, processes and analyzes global data for terrestrial and marine environments. NGDC and the collocated WDC, have a major role in the post-event data collection (including the compilation, cataloging, and synthesis) of all available information on tsunami sources and effects to support modeling, engineering, planning and educational purposes.

 

            The present NGDC Worldwide Tsunami Database (WWTD) includes more than 2,370 events since 2,000 BC and more than 6,700 locations where tsunamis were observed. Times of generating earthquakes, tsunami arrival times, travel times, first motion of the wave, and wave periods are included in the database. All of the NGDC natural hazards databases including the tsunami event, tsunami run-up, and significant earthquake databases are now stored in a relational database management system. These data are accessible over the Web as tables, reports, and interactive maps. The interactive maps provide integrated Web-based GIS access to the hazards databases as well as additional auxiliary geospatial data. The map services also provide hyperlinks to additional hazards information such as NGDC’s extensive collection of geologic hazards photos. NGDC is now receiving more than 4,000 requests per month for interactive maps displaying natural hazards data. The address for the NGDC natural hazards Web site, which includes links to the interactive maps, is: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/hazards.shtml. The tsunami database is available and searchable from the following Web site: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/tsu.shtml.

 

            As described in the Introduction, a collaborative plan to merge the NGDC WWTD with the NTL HTDB data was developed in the summer, 2003.  The new unified database will summarize the long-term efforts of several research groups and individuals in collecting, refining and digitizing the tsunami data and will represent the updated, revised and homogeneous tsunami dataset.  The benefits of having such a single, unified product are straightforward.  First, this new product will reduce confusion for end users looking for a reliable source of information on historical tsunamis.  And second, in the process of preparation of the joint product, many discrepancies and uncertainties in parameters of historical tsunamigenic events still existing in both the HTDB and WWTD databases will be resolved. 

            The official copy of the unified tsunami database is planned to be housed at the WDC/NGDC, which would then be able to take advantage of WDC/NGDC’s existing institutional framework, human resources, and database archiving and delivery technologies, to support and enhance the tsunami database. As NTL also has users who are familiar with the data access and display applications available from the web-version of the HTDB, the data files would be exported from the unified database and be also available from the NTL website in Novosibirsk, Russia.  Additionally, recognizing that some international users may not have ready access to the Internet, as well as recognizing the needs of  individual researches to have an access to the historical data in “offline” mode (e.g. being on research ships or in the field during post-event tsunami surveys), it is suggested that the offline, standalone application (WinHTDB graphic shell) continue to be supported and distributed using the data files retrieved from the unified tsunami database.

 

Publications

 

            Scientists at NGDC have published several papers in the Science of Tsunami Hazards Journal, including:

“A Brief History of Tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea”, by James F. Lander, Lowell S. Whiteside, and Patricia A. Lockridge (Volume 20, No. 2, 2002, p. 57-94, http://sthjournal.org/202/carib.pdf);

“Tsunamis and Tsunami-Like Waves of the Eastern United State” with Appendix 1: Table of Tsunamis and Tsunami-Like Waves of the Eastern United States, by Patricia A. Lockridge, Lowell S. Whiteside, and James F. Lander (Volume 20, No. 3, 2002, p. 120-157, http://sthjournal.org/203/ec1.pdf and http://sthjournal.org/203/ec2.pdf);

“The Tsunami History of Guam: 1849-1993”, by James F. Lander and Lowell S. Whiteside (Volume 20, No. 3, 2002, p. 158-174, http://sthjournal.org/203/guam.pdf); and

“Two Decades of Global Tsunamis: 1982-2002”, by James F. Lander, Lowell S. Whiteside, and Patricia A. Lockridge (Volume 21, No. 1, 2003, p. 3-88, http://sthjournal.org/211/decades.pdf).

 

Slide Sets

 

            NGDC continues to collect photographs of damage caused by natural hazards. NGDC will be releasing the entire collection of geologic hazards photos (300 dpi resolution) and associated descriptions on DVD-ROM. The compilation includes over 900 images showing damage from tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, and other geologic hazards.

 


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