5. Acronyms & Organizations

The IOC Global Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Systems work in partnership with a number of organizations and utilize specific acronyms to describe system governance, and the different tsunami information products.

Forecast Point
The location where the Tsunami Warning Centre may provide estimates of tsunami arrival time or wave height.

GLOSS
Global Sea-Level Observing System.  A component of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).  The UNESCO IOC established GLOSS in 1985 originally to improve the quality of sea level data as input to studies of long-term sea level change. It consists of a core network of approximately 300 stations distributed along continental coastlines and throughout each of the world's island groups.  The GLOSS network also supports sea level monitoring for tsunami warning with minimum operational standards of 15-minute data transmissions of 1-minute sampled data.

GOOS
Global Ocean Observing System. GOOS is a permanent global system for observations, modelling and analysis of marine and ocean variables to support operational ocean services worldwide. The GOOS Project aims to provide accurate descriptions of the present state of the oceans, including living resources; continuous forecasts of the future conditions of the sea for as far ahead as possible; and the basis for forecasts of climate change. The GOOS Project Office, located at the IOC headquarters in Paris since 1992, provides assistance in the implementation of GOOS.

GTS
Global Telecommunications System of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) that directly connects national meteorological and hydrological services worldwide. The GTS is widely used for the near real time transmission of sea level data for tsunami monitoring. The GTS and other robust communications methods are used for the transmission of tsunami warnings.

ICG
Intergovernmental Coordination Group. As subsidiary bodies of the UNESCO IOC, the ICG meets to promote, organize, and coordinate regional tsunami mitigation activities, including the issuance of timely tsunami warnings. To achieve this objective requires the participation, cooperation and contribution of many national and international seismic, sea level, communication, and dissemination facilities throughout the region. The ICG is comprised of Member States in the region. Currently, these are ICGs for tsunami warning and mitigation systems in the Pacific, Indian Ocean, Caribbean and adjacent regions, and the north-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas.

ICG/CARIBE-EWS
Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions established by Resolution XXIII-14 of the 23rd Session of the IOC General Assembly in 2005.  The ICG is comprised principally of IOC Member States and regional organizations from the Wider Caribbean Region. Through the coordinating efforts of the IOCARIBE Sub-commission starting in 1993, a Group of Experts formulated a proposal for the building of the Intra-Americas Tsunami Warning System that was endorsed by the IOC General Assembly in 2002.  (http://www.ioc-tsunami.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=15&lang=en)

ICG/IOTWS
Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System established by Resolution XXIII-12 of the 23rd Session of the IOC General Assembly in 2005. The IOC Regional Programme Office in Perth, Australia, serves as the IOTWS Secretariat.  Presently, there are 27 Member States.  (http://www.ioc-tsunami.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=13&lang=en)

ICG/ITSU 
International Coordination Group for the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific established by Resolution IV-6 of the 4th Session of the IOC General Assembly in 1965. The ICG/ITSU was renamed to the ICG/PTWS in 2005.

ICG/NEAMTWS
Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas established by Resolution XXIII-13 of the 23rd Session of the IOC General Assembly in 2005. The ICG is comprised principally of IOC Member States bordering the north-eastern Atlantic and those bordering or within the Mediterranean or connected seas. 
(http://www.ioc-tsunami.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10&Itemid=14&lang=en)

ICG/PTWS
Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System, renamed by Resolution ITSU-XX.1 of the 20th Session of the ICG/ITSU in 2005. Presently, there are 32 Member States.  The ICG/PTWS was formerly the ICG/ITSU. (http://www.ioc-tsunami.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11&Itemid=12&lang=en)

ICG Tsunami National Contact (TNC)
The person designated by an ICG Member State government to represent his/her country in the coordination of international tsunami warning and mitigation activities. The person is part of the main stakeholders of the national tsunami warning and mitigation system programme.  The person may be the Tsunami Warning Focal Point, from the national disaster management organization, from a technical or scientific institution, or from another agency with tsunami warning and mitigation responsibilities.

ICG Tsunami Warning Focal Point (TWFP)
7x24 contact person, or other official point of contact or address, for rapidly receiving and issuing tsunami event information (such as warnings). The Tsunami Warning Focal Point either is the emergency authority (civil defense or other designated agency responsible for public safety), or has the responsibility of notifying the emergency authority of the event characteristics (earthquake and/or tsunami), in accordance with national standard operating procedures. The Tsunami Warning Focal Point receives international tsunami warnings from the PTWC, WC/ATWC, the JMANWPTAC, or other regional warning centres.

IOC
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. The IOC provides Member States of the United Nations with an essential mechanism for global cooperation in the study of the ocean. The IOC assists governments to address their individual and collective ocean and coastal problems through the sharing of knowledge, information and technology and through the coordination of national programmes.
(http://ioc-unesco.org/)

ITIC
International Tsunami Information Centre. ITIC was established in November 1965 by the IOC of UNESCO to support the ICG/ITSU in the Pacific. The ITIC also provides technical and capacity building assistance to Member States for the global establishment of tsunami warning and mitigation systems in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas, and other oceans and marginal seas. In the Pacific, the ITIC specifically monitors and recommends improvements to the PTWS, coordinates tsunami technology transfer among Member States interested in establishing regional and national tsunami warning systems, acts as a clearinghouse for risk assessment and mitigation activities, and serves as a resource for the development, publication, and distribution of tsunami education and preparedness materials.  (http://www.tsunamiwave.info)

IUGG
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics.  The IUGG is a non-governmental, scientific organization established in 1919, dedicated to promoting and coordinating studies of the Earth and its environment in space.  The IUGG Tsunami Commission, established in 1960, is an international group of scientists concerned with various aspects of tsunamis, including an improved understanding of the dynamics of generation, propagation, and coastal runup of tsunami, as well as their consequences to society.   (http://iugg.org)

JMA
Japan Meteorological Agency. JMA established a tsunami warning service in 1952. JMA now serves as a National Tsunami Warning System that continuously monitors 24 hours-a-day all seismic activity in Japan, and issues timely information concerning earthquakes and tsunamis. In 2005, the JMA began operations of the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center (NWPTAC). The NWPTAC provides supplementary tsunami information for events in and around Japan and the northwest Pacific, and interim services for the South China Sea region, in close coordination with the PTWC. Since 2005, JMA and PTWC have provided interim services for the Indian Ocean.  (http://www.jma.go.jp/jma)

Master Plan
The principal long-term guide for improving the TWS. The Plan provides a summary of the basic elements which comprise the TWS, a description of its existing components, and an outline of the activities, data sets, methods, and procedures that need to be improved in order to reduce tsunami risk. The first edition of the ICG/PTWS Master Plan was released in 1989. The second edition was released in 1999. 
(http://itic.ioc-unesco.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=1064&Itemid=1142&lang=en)

Ocean-wide Tsunami Warning
A warning issued to all participants after there is confirmation of tsunami waves capable of causing destruction beyond the local area.  Ocean-Wide Tsunami Warnings contain estimated tsunami arrival times (ETAs) at all Forecast Points.  Ocean-Wide Tsunami Warning Bulletins also normally carry information on selected wave heights and other wave reports.  The Warning will be cancelled when it is determined that the tsunami threat is over. As local conditions can cause wide variations in tsunami wave action, the all-clear determination should be made by the local action agencies and not the TWC. In general, after receipt of a Tsunami Warning, action agencies can assume all-clear status when their area is free from damaging waves for at least two hours, unless additional ETAs have been announced by the TWC (for example for a significant aftershock) or local conditions, that may include continued seiching or particularly strong currents in channels and harbours, warrant the continuation of the Tsunami Warning status.

SAMPLE:  Pacific-Wide Tsunami Warning (initial)

TSUNAMI BULLETIN NUMBER 004
PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER/NOAA/NWS
ISSUED AT 1050Z 10 JUL 2008
 
THIS BULLETIN APPLIES TO AREAS WITHIN AND BORDERING THE PACIFIC OCEAN AND ADJACENT SEAS...EXCEPT ALASKA...BRITISH COLUMBIA...
WASHINGTON...OREGON AND CALIFORNIA.
 
... A WIDESPREAD TSUNAMI WARNING IS IN EFFECT ...
 
A TSUNAMI WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR
 
CHILE / PERU / ECUADOR / COLOMBIA / ANTARCTICA / PANAMA / COSTA RICA / PITCAIRN / NICARAGUA / HONDURAS / FR. POLYNESIA / EL SALVADOR / GUATEMALA / MEXICO / COOK ISLANDS / KIRIBATI /
 KERMADEC IS / NIUE / NEW ZEALAND / TONGA / AMERICAN SAMOA / SAMOA / JARVIS IS. / WALLIS-FUTUNA / TOKELAU / FIJI / AUSTRALIA / HAWAII / PALMYRA IS. / TUVALU / VANUATU / HOWLAND-BAKER / NEW CALEDONIA / JOHNSTON IS. / SOLOMON IS. / NAURU / MARSHALL IS. / MIDWAY IS. / KOSRAE / PAPUA NEW GUINEA / POHNPEI / WAKE IS. / CHUUK / RUSSIA / MARCUS IS. / N. MARIANAS /
 INDONESIA / GUAM / YAP / BELAU / JAPAN / PHILIPPINES /
 CHINESE TAIPEI / TAIWAN
 
THIS BULLETIN IS ISSUED AS ADVICE TO GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.  ONLY NATIONAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES HAVE THE AUTHORITY TO MAKE
DECISIONS REGARDING THE OFFICIAL STATE OF ALERT IN THEIR AREA AND ANY ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN RESPONSE.
 
AN EARTHQUAKE HAS OCCURRED WITH THESE PRELIMINARY PARAMETERS
 
 ORIGIN TIME - 0809Z 10 JUL 2008
 COORDINATES - 35.2 SOUTH   75.1 WEST  DEPTH - 40 KM
 LOCATION - OFF COAST OF CENTRAL CHILE
 MAGNITUDE - 8.9
MEASUREMENTS OR REPORTS OF TSUNAMI WAVE ACTIVITY
 
 GAUGE LOCATION       LAT    LON      TIME        AMPL            PER
 ----------------------------    -------- ----------  ---------  -------------------  ---------
 JUAN FERNANDEZ     33.6S  78.8W  1040Z   2.33M / 1.1FT   28MIN
 VALPARAISO CL          33.0S  71.6W  1011Z   1.53M / 1.7FT   29MIN
 SAN ANTONIO CL       33.6S  71.6W  0948Z   1.52M / 1.7FT   33MIN
 TALCAHUANO CL       36.7S  73.1W  0923Z   1.95M / 3.1FT   25MIN

 LAT  - LATITUDE (N-NORTH, S-SOUTH)
 LON  - LONGITUDE (E-EAST, W-WEST)
 TIME - TIME OF THE MEASUREMENT (Z IS UTC IS
              GREENWICH TIME)
 AMPL - TSUNAMI AMPLITUDE MEASURED RELATIVE TO
               NORMAL SEA LEVEL.
               IT IS ...NOT... CREST-TO-TROUGH WAVE HEIGHT.
               VALUES ARE GIVEN IN BOTH METERS(M) AND   
               FEET(FT).
 PER  - PERIOD OF TIME IN MINUTES(MIN) FROM ONE
              WAVE TO THE NEXT.
 
EVALUATION
 
SEA LEVEL READINGS CONFIRM THAT A TSUNAMI HAS BEEN GENERATED WHICH COULD CAUSE WIDESPREAD DAMAGE. AUTHORITIES SHOULD TAKE APPROPRIATE ACTION IN RESPONSE TO THIS THREAT. THIS CENTER WILL CONTINUE TO MONITOR SEA LEVEL DATA TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT AND SEVERITY OF THE THREAT.
 
A TSUNAMI IS A SERIES OF WAVES AND THE FIRST WAVE MAY NOT BE THE LARGEST. TSUNAMI WAVE HEIGHTS CANNOT BE PREDICTED AND CAN VARY SIGNIFICANTLY ALONG A COAST DUE TO LOCAL EFFECTS. THE TIME FROM ONE TSUNAMI WAVE TO THE NEXT CAN BE FIVE MINUTES TO AN HOUR, AND THE THREAT CAN CONTINUE FOR MANY HOURS AS MULTIPLE WAVES ARRIVE.
 
FOR ALL AREAS - WHEN NO MAJOR WAVES ARE OBSERVED FOR TWO HOURS AFTER THE ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL OR DAMAGING WAVES HAVE NOT       OCCURRED FOR AT LEAST TWO HOURS THEN LOCAL AUTHORITIES CAN ASSUME THE THREAT IS PASSED. DANGER TO BOATS AND COASTAL STRUCTURES CAN     CONTINUE FOR SEVERAL HOURS DUE TO RAPID CURRENTS. AS LOCAL CONDITIONS CAN CAUSE A WIDE VARIATION IN TSUNAMI WAVE ACTION THE     ALL CLEAR DETERMINATION MUST BE MADE BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES.
  
ESTIMATED INITIAL TSUNAMI WAVE ARRIVAL TIMES AT FORECAST POINTS WITHIN THE WARNING AND WATCH AREAS ARE GIVEN BELOW. ACTUAL ARRIVAL TIMES MAY DIFFER AND THE INITIAL WAVE MAY NOT BE THE LARGEST. A TSUNAMI IS A SERIES OF WAVES AND THE TIME BETWEEN SUCCESSIVE WAVES CAN BE FIVE MINUTES TO ONE HOUR.
 
 LOCATION  FORECAST POINT     COORDINATES     ARRIVAL TIME
 ----------------  --------------------------     ----------------------    ---------------------
 CHILE          VALPARAISO                33.0S  71.6W        0550Z 10 JUL
                     TALCAHUANO               36.7S  73.1W        0603Z 10 JUL
                     COQUIMBO                   29.9S  71.3W        0610Z 10 JUL
                     CORRAL                        39.8S  73.5W        0621Z 10 JUL
                     CALDERA                      27.1S  70.8W        0631Z 10 JUL
                     ANTOFAGASTA             23.3S  70.4W        0654Z 10 JUL
                     IQUIQUE                        20.2S  70.1W        0721Z 10 JUL
                     ARICA                            18.5S  70.3W        0738Z 10 JUL
                     GOLFO DE PENAS       47.1S  74.9W        0745Z 10 JUL
                     PUERTO MONTT           41.5S  73.0W       0903Z 10 JUL
                     EASTER IS.                   27.1S 109.4W       1001Z 10 JUL
                     PUNTA ARENAS            53.2S  70.9W       1024Z 10 JUL
                     PUERTO WILLIAMS      54.8S  68.2W        1215Z 10 JUL
 
* NOTE:  ALL STATIONS ARE NOT LISTED IN THIS SAMPLE
 
BULLETINS WILL BE ISSUED HOURLY OR SOONER IF CONDITIONS WARRANT.  THE TSUNAMI WARNING WILL REMAIN IN EFFECT UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE.
 
THE WEST COAST/ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER WILL ISSUE PRODUCTS FOR ALASKA...BRITISH COLUMBIA...WASHINGTON...OREGON...CALIFORNIA.

 


Operational Users Guide for the Tsunami Warning System
The Guide includes a summary of the administrative and operational services and procedures, including monitoring and detection data networks used by the warning centres, the criteria for the reporting and issuing of tsunami information messages, samples messages, the recipients of the information, and the methods by which the messages are sent. Background information to assist customers in understanding the products that are issued may also be included. Formerly called the Communications Plan for the TWS.

PTWC and WC/ATWC
Established in 1949, the Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, serves as the warning operations headquarters for the PTWS and works closely with sub-regional and national centres in monitoring and evaluating potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes. It provides international warning advisories for teletsunamis to countries in the Pacific, and warnings for Hawaii and US Pacific island interests. PTWC has provided interim services for the Indian Ocean and the wider Caribbean since 2005. Established in 1964, the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WC/ATWC) provides warning services to the continental USA, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Canada, and serves as a back up to PTWC. (http://www.weather.gov/ptwc/) (http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/)

PTWC facilities located at Ewa Beach, Hawaii, USA.

PTWC facilities located at Ewa Beach, Hawaii, USA.

 

PTWC operations area.

PTWC operations area.

 

Global seismic network used by PTWC.

Global seismic network used by PTWC (March 2008).

 

Global sea level network used by PTWC.

Global sea level network used by PTWC (July 2008).

 

PTWS
Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System.  The PTWS is an international programme for coordination of tsunami warning and mitigation activities in the Pacific. Administratively, participating nations are organized under the IOC as the ICG/PTWS with the ITIC acting as the PTWS Secretariat and the PTWC acting as the operational headquarters for tsunami warning. Among the most important activities of the PTWS is the detection and location of major earthquakes in the Pacific region, the determination of whether they have generated tsunamis, and the provision of timely and effective tsunami information and warnings to coastal communities in the Pacific to minimize the hazards of tsunamis, especially to human life and welfare.  To achieve this objective requires the national participation and contribution of many seismic, sea level, communication, and dissemination facilities throughout the Pacific Region. 

Regional Expanding Tsunami Watch/Warning Bulletin (RWW) 
A PTWC PTWS message issued initially using only seismic information to alert countries of the possibility of a tsunami and advise that a tsunami investigation is underway. In the Pacific, Tsunami Warning status will encompass regions having less than three hours until the estimated time of tsunami arrival. Those areas having three to six hours will be placed in a Watch status.  Additional bulletins will be issued hourly or sooner until either a Pacific-wide tsunami is confirmed or no further tsunami threat exists. 

SAMPLE:  Expanding Regional Tsunami Warning and Watch (initial)

TSUNAMI BULLETIN NUMBER 001
PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER/NOAA/NWS
ISSUED AT 0821Z 10 JUL 2008
 
THIS BULLETIN APPLIES TO AREAS WITHIN AND BORDERING THE PACIFIC OCEAN AND ADJACENT SEAS...EXCEPT ALASKA...BRITISH COLUMBIA...
WASHINGTON...OREGON AND CALIFORNIA.
 
... A TSUNAMI WARNING AND WATCH ARE IN EFFECT ...
 
A TSUNAMI WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR
 
 CHILE / PERU
 
A TSUNAMI WATCH IS IN EFFECT FOR
 
 ECUADOR / COLOMBIA
 
FOR ALL OTHER AREAS COVERED BY THIS BULLETIN... IT IS FOR INFORMATION ONLY AT THIS TIME.
 
THIS BULLETIN IS ISSUED AS ADVICE TO GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.  ONLY NATIONAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES HAVE THE AUTHORITY TO MAKE DECISIONS REGARDING THE OFFICIAL STATE OF ALERT IN THEIR AREA AND ANY ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN RESPONSE.
 
AN EARTHQUAKE HAS OCCURRED WITH THESE PRELIMINARY PARAMETERS
 
 ORIGIN TIME - 0809Z 10 JUL 2008
 COORDINATES - 35.2 SOUTH  75.1 WEST  DEPTH - 40 KM
 LOCATION - OFF COAST OF CENTRAL CHILE
 MAGNITUDE - 8.2
 
EVALUATION
 
IT IS NOT KNOWN THAT A TSUNAMI WAS GENERATED. THIS WARNING IS BASED ONLY ON THE EARTHQUAKE EVALUATION. AN EARTHQUAKE OF THIS SIZE HAS THE POTENTIAL TO GENERATE A DESTRUCTIVE TSUNAMI THAT CAN STRIKE COASTLINES NEAR THE EPICENTER WITHIN MINUTES AND MORE DISTANT COASTLINES WITHIN HOURS. AUTHORITIES SHOULD TAKE APPROPRIATE ACTION IN RESPONSE TO THIS POSSIBILITY. THIS CENTER WILL MONITOR SEA LEVEL DATA FROM GAUGES NEAR THE EARTHQUAKE TO       DETERMINE IF A TSUNAMI WAS GENERATED AND ESTIMATE THE SEVERITY OF THE THREAT.  ESTIMATED                                                     INITIAL TSUNAMI WAVE ARRIVAL TIMES AT FORECAST POINTS WITHIN THE WARNING AND WATCH AREAS ARE GIVEN BELOW. ACTUAL ARRIVAL TIMES MAY DIFFER AND THE INITIAL WAVE MAY NOT BE THE LARGEST. A TSUNAMI IS A SERIES OF WAVES AND THE TIME BETWEEN SUCCESSIVE WAVES CAN BE FIVE MINUTES TO ONE HOUR.

 LOCATION   FORECAST POINT    COORDINATES     ARRIVAL TIME
 --------------------------------------------    ----------------------    ----------------------
 CHILE           VALPARAISO             33.0S  71.6W         0850Z 10 JUL
                      TALCAHUANO           36.7S  73.1W         0903Z 10 JUL
                      COQUIMBO                29.9S  71.3W        0910Z 10 JUL
                      CORRAL                     39.8S  73.5W        0921Z 10 JUL
                      CALDERA                   27.1S  70.8W        0931Z 10 JUL
                      ANTOFAGASTA          23.3S  70.4W        0954Z 10 JUL
                      IQUIQUE                    20.2S  70.1W        1021Z 10 JUL
                      ARICA                         18.5S  70.3W        1038Z 10 JUL
                      GOLFO DE PENAS    47.1S  74.9W        1045Z 10 JUL
                      PUERTO MONTT       41.5S  73.0W        1203Z 10 JUL
                      EASTER IS.                27.1S 109.4W       1301Z 10 JUL
                      PUNTA ARENAS        53.2S  70.9W        1324Z 10 JUL
 PERU           MOLLENDO               17.1S  72.0W        1045Z 10 JUL
                      SAN JUAN                 15.3S  75.2W         1102Z 10 JUL
                      LA PUNTA                  12.1S  77.2W         1155Z 10 JUL
                      PIMENTAL                  6.9S  80.0W          1223Z 10 JUL
                      TALARA                      4.6S  81.5W          1236Z 10 JUL
                      CHIMBOTE                9.0S  78.8W           1242Z 10 JUL
 ECUADOR   LA LIBERTAD             2.2S  81.2W          1312Z 10 JUL
                      ESMERELDAS           1.2N  79.8W          1343Z 10 JUL
                      BALTRA IS.                 0.5S  90.3W          1415Z 10 JUL
 COLOMBIA  TUMACO                    1.8N  78.9W          1402Z 10 JUL
 
BULLETINS WILL BE ISSUED HOURLY OR SOONER IF CONDITIONS WARRANT.  THE TSUNAMI WARNING AND WATCH WILL REMAIN IN EFFECT UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE.
 
THE WEST COAST/ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER WILL ISSUE PRODUCTS FOR ALASKA... BRITISH COLUMBIA...WASHINGTON...OREGON... CALIFORNIA.


SAMPLE:  Expanding Regional Tsunami Warning and Watch (cancellation)

TSUNAMI BULLETIN NUMBER 004
PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER/NOAA/NWS
ISSUED AT 1052Z 10 JUL 2008
 
THIS BULLETIN APPLIES TO AREAS WITHIN AND BORDERING THE PACIFIC OCEAN AND ADJACENT SEAS...EXCEPT ALASKA...BRITISH COLUMBIA...
WASHINGTON...OREGON AND CALIFORNIA.
 
... TSUNAMI WARNING CANCELLATION ...
 
THE TSUNAMI WARNING AND/OR WATCH ISSUED BY THE PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER IS NOW CANCELLED FOR
 
 CHILE / PERU / ECUADOR / COLOMBIA / ANTARCTICA / PANAMA / COSTA RICA / PITCAIRN / NICARAGUA / HONDURAS / FR. POLYNESIA / EL SALVADOR / GUATEMALA / MEXICO
 
THIS BULLETIN IS ISSUED AS ADVICE TO GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.  ONLY NATIONAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES HAVE THE AUTHORITY TO MAKE DECISIONS REGARDING THE OFFICIAL STATE OF ALERT IN THEIR AREA AND ANY ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN RESPONSE.
 
AN EARTHQUAKE HAS OCCURRED WITH THESE PRELIMINARY PARAMETERS
 
 ORIGIN TIME - 0809Z 10 JUL 2008
 COORDINATES - 35.2 SOUTH   75.1 WEST  DEPTH - 40 KM
 LOCATION - OFF COAST OF CENTRAL CHILE
 MAGNITUDE - 8.3
 
MEASUREMENTS OR REPORTS OF TSUNAMI WAVE ACTIVITY
 
 GAUGE LOCATION        LAT   LON        TIME          AMPL           PER
 ----------------------------      ------   -------      --------    ------------------   ---------
 JUAN FERNANDEZ       33.6S  78.8W  1040Z   0.33M / 1.1FT   23MIN
 VALPARAISO CL            33.0S  71.6W  1011Z   0.53M / 1.7FT   19MIN
 SAN ANTONIO CL          33.6S  71.6W  0948Z   0.52M / 1.7FT   18MIN
 TALCAHUANO CL          36.7S  73.1W  0923Z   0.95M / 3.1FT   22MIN
 
 LAT  - LATITUDE (N-NORTH, S-SOUTH)
 LON  - LONGITUDE (E-EAST, W-WEST)
 TIME - TIME OF THE MEASUREMENT (Z IS UTC IS  
              GREENWICH TIME)
 AMPL - TSUNAMI AMPLITUDE MEASURED RELATIVE TO    
              NORMAL SEA LEVEL.
              IT IS ...NOT... CREST-TO-TROUGH WAVE HEIGHT.
              VALUES ARE GIVEN IN BOTH METERS(M) AND
              FEET(FT).
 PER  - PERIOD OF TIME IN MINUTES(MIN) FROM ONE
              WAVE TO THE NEXT.
 
EVALUATION
 
SEA LEVEL READINGS INDICATE A TSUNAMI WAS GENERATED. IT MAY HAVE BEEN DESTRUCTIVE ALONG COASTS NEAR THE EARTHQUAKE EPICENTER. FOR     THOSE AREAS - WHEN NO MAJOR WAVES ARE OBSERVED FOR TWO HOURS  AFTER THE ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL OR DAMAGING WAVES HAVE NOT       OCCURRED FOR AT LEAST TWO HOURS THEN LOCAL AUTHORITIES CAN ASSUME THE THREAT IS PASSED. DANGER TO BOATS AND COASTAL STRUCTURES CAN     CONTINUE FOR SEVERAL HOURS DUE TO RAPID CURRENTS. AS LOCAL CONDITIONS CAN CAUSE A WIDE VARIATION IN TSUNAMI WAVE ACTION THE     ALL CLEAR DETERMINATION MUST BE MADE BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES.
 
NO TSUNAMI THREAT EXISTS FOR OTHER COASTAL AREAS IN THE PACIFIC ALTHOUGH SOME OTHER AREAS MAY EXPERIENCE SMALL SEA LEVEL CHANGES.  THE TSUNAMI WARNING IS NOW CANCELLED FOR ALL AREAS COVERED BY THIS CENTER.
 
THIS WILL BE THE FINAL BULLETIN ISSUED FOR THIS EVENT UNLESS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION BECOMES AVAILABLE.
 
THE WEST COAST/ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER WILL ISSUE PRODUCTS FOR ALASKA...BRITISH COLUMBIA...WASHINGTON...OREGON...CALIFORNIA.

Regional Fixed Tsunami Warning Bulletin
A PTWC PTWS message issued initially using only seismic information to alert all participants of the possibility of a tsunami and advise that a tsunami investigation is underway. The area placed in a Tsunami Warning status encompasses coastal regions within 1,000 km of the earthquake epicentre.  A  Regional Fixed Tsunami Warning will be followed by additional bulletins without expanding the warning area until it is either upgraded or is cancelled.

SAMPLE:  Fixed Regional Tsunami Warning (initial)

TSUNAMI BULLETIN NUMBER 001
PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING
 CENTER/NOAA/NWS
ISSUED AT 1819Z 25 FEB 2005

THIS BULLETIN IS FOR ALL AREAS OF THE PACIFIC BASIN EXCEPT ALASKA - BRITISH COLUMBIA - WASHINGTON - OREGON CALIFORNIA.

... A TSUNAMI WARNING IS IN EFFECT ...

A TSUNAMI WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR
RUSSIA

FOR ALL OTHER PACIFIC AREAS, THIS MESSAGE IS AN ADVISORY ONLY.

AN EARTHQUAKE HAS OCCURRED WITH THESE PRELIMINARY PARAMETERS

   ORIGIN TIME -  1804Z 25 FEB 2005
   COORDINATES -  52.3 NORTH  160.7 EAST
   LOCATION -  OFF EAST COAST OF KAMCHATKA
   MAGNITUDE   -  7.7

EVALUATION

IT IS NOT KNOWN THAT A TSUNAMI WAS GENERATED.  THIS WARNING IS BASED ONLY ON THE EARTHQUAKE EVALUATION. AN EARTHQUAKE OF THIS SIZE HAS THE POTENTIAL TO GENERATE A DESTRUCTIVE TSUNAMI THAT CAN STRIKE COASTLINES IN THE REGION NEAR THE EPICENTRE WITHIN MINUTES TO HOURS. AUTHORITIES IN THE REGION SHOULD TAKE APPROPRIATE ACTION IN RESPONSE TO THIS POSSIBILITY. THIS CENTER WILL MONITOR SEA LEVEL GAUGES NEAREST THE REGION AND REPORT IF ANY TSUNAMI WAVE ACTIVITY IS OBSERVED. THE WARNING WILL NOT EXPAND TO OTHER AREAS OF THE PACIFIC UNLESS ADDITIONAL DATA ARE RECEIVED TO WARRANT SUCH AN EXPANSION.

ESTIMATED INITIAL TSUNAMI WAVE ARRIVAL TIMES. ACTUAL ARRIVAL TIMES MAY DIFFER AND THE INITIAL WAVE MAY NOT BE THE LARGEST. THE TIME BETWEEN SUCCESSIVE TSUNAMI WAVES CAN BE FIVE MINUTES TO ONE HOUR.


  LOCATION               COORDINATES   ARRIVAL TIME
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
RUSSIA 

PETROPAVLOVSK-K   52.9N 158.3E    1926Z 25 FEB
UST KAMCHATSK       56.2N 162.5E    1943Z 25 FEB
MEDNNY IS                  54.6N 167.6E   1946Z 25 FEB SEVERO KURILSK      50.6N 156.3E    2000Z 25 FEB URUP IS                       45.9N 150.2E    2031Z 25 FEB

BULLETINS WILL BE ISSUED HOURLY OR SOONER IF CONDITIONS WARRANT.
THE TSUNAMI WARNING WILL REMAIN IN EFFECT UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE.


SAMPLE:  Fixed Regional Tsunami Warning (cancellation)

TSUNAMI BULLETIN NUMBER 003
PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER/NOAA/NWS
ISSUED AT 2019Z 25 FEB 2005

THIS BULLETIN IS FOR ALL AREAS OF THE PACIFIC BASIN EXCEPT ALASKA - BRITISH COLUMBIA - WASHINGTON - OREGON - CALIFORNIA.

... TSUNAMI WARNING CANCELLATION ...

THE TSUNAMI WARNING IS CANCELLED FOR ALL COASTAL AREAS AND ISLANDS IN THE PACIFIC.
AN EARTHQUAKE HAS OCCURRED WITH THESE PRELIMINARY PARAMETERS

  ORIGIN TIME -  1804Z 25 FEB 2005
  COORDINATES -  52.3 NORTH  160.7 EAST
  LOCATION - OFF EAST COAST OF KAMCHATKA
  MAGNITUDE   -  7.7

MEASUREMENTS OR REPORTS OF TSUNAMI WAVE ACTIVITY

   GAUGE
 LOCATION        LAT      LON     TIME     AMPL   PER
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
NIKISKI              60.7N  151.4W   0057Z    0.52M  **MIN
SEVERO KURILSK
                          50.7N   156.1E    2042Z    0.12M  64MIN

Tsunami Bulletin Board (TBB)
TBB is an ITIC-sponsored e-mail service that provides an open, objective scientific forum for the posting and discussion of news and information relating to tsunamis and tsunami research. The ITIC provides the service to tsunami researchers and other technical professionals for the purpose of facilitating the widespread dissemination of information on tsunami events, current research investigations, and announcements for upcoming meetings, publications, and other tsunami-related materials. All members of the TBB are welcome to contribute. Messages are immediately broadcast without modification. The TBB has been very useful for helping to rapidly organize post-tsunami surveys, for distributing their results, and for planning tsunami workshops and symposia. Members of the TBB automatically receive the tsunami bulletins issued by the PTWC, WC/ATWC, and JMA.

Tsunami Emergency Response (TER)
Tsunami Emergency Response describes the actions taken to ensure public safety by responsible agencies after notification by the Tsunami Warning Focal Point (TWFP), typically the national Tsunami Warning Centre. It includes Standard Operating Procedures and Protocols for emergency response and action, organizations and individuals involved and their roles and responsibilities, contact information, timeline and urgency assigned to action, and means by which both ordinary citizens and special needs populations (physically or mentally handicapped, elderly, transient, and marine populations) will be alerted.  For tsunami response, emphasis is placed on the rapidness, efficiency, conciseness, and clarity of the actions and instructions to the public.  A Tsunami Emergency Response Plan should also include post-tsunami actions and responsibilities for search and rescue, relief, rehabilitation, and recovery.

Tsunami Information Bulletin (TIB) 
TWC message product advising the occurrence of a major earthquake with an evaluation that there is either:  a) no widespread tsunami threat but the small possibility of a local tsunami or b) there is no tsunami threat at all that indicates there is no tsunami threat.

SAMPLE:  Tsunami Information Bulletin

 
TSUNAMI BULLETIN NUMBER 001
PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER/NOAA/NWS
ISSUED AT 0222Z 05 JUL 2008
 
THIS BULLETIN APPLIES TO AREAS WITHIN AND BORDERING THE PACIFIC OCEAN AND ADJACENT SEAS...EXCEPT ALASKA...BRITISH COLUMBIA... WASHINGTON...OREGON AND CALIFORNIA.
 
... TSUNAMI INFORMATION BULLETIN ...
 
THIS BULLETIN IS FOR INFORMATION ONLY.

THIS BULLETIN IS ISSUED AS ADVICE TO GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.  ONLY NATIONAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES HAVE THE AUTHORITY TO MAKE DECISIONS REGARDING THE OFFICIAL STATE OF ALERT IN THEIR AREA AND ANY ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN RESPONSE.
 
AN EARTHQUAKE HAS OCCURRED WITH THESE PRELIMINARY PARAMETERS
 
 ORIGIN TIME - 0212Z 05 JUL 2008
 COORDINATES - 53.8 NORTH  153.2 EAST
 DEPTH - 550 KM
 LOCATION - SEA OF OKHOTSK
 MAGNITUDE - 7.6
 
EVALUATION
 
A DESTRUCTIVE TSUNAMI WAS NOT GENERATED BASED ON EARTHQUAKE AND HISTORICAL TSUNAMI DATA.
 
THIS WILL BE THE ONLY BULLETIN ISSUED FOR THIS EVENT UNLESS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION BECOMES AVAILABLE.
 
THE JAPAN METEOROLOGICAL AGENCY MAY ALSO ISSUE TSUNAMI MESSAGES FOR THIS EVENT TO COUNTRIES IN THE NORTHWEST PACIFIC AND SOUTH CHINA SEA REGION.  IN CASE OF CONFLICTING INFORMATION... THE MORE CONSERVATIVE INFORMATION SHOULD BE USED FOR SAFETY.
 
THE WEST COAST/ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER WILL ISSUE PRODUCTS FOR ALASKA... BRITISH COLUMBIA...WASHINGTON...OREGON... CALIFORNIA.

  

Tsunami Warning
The highest level of tsunami alert. Warnings are issued by the TWCs due to confirmation of a destructive tsunami wave or the threat of an imminent tsunami. Initially the warnings are based only on seismic information without tsunami confirmation as a means of providing the earliest possible alert to at-risk populations. Warnings initially place a restricted area in a condition that requires all coastal areas in the region to be prepared for imminent flooding. Subsequent text products are issued at least hourly or as conditions warrant to continue, expand, restrict, or end the warning.  In the event a tsunami has been confirmed which could cause damage at distances greater than 1,000 km from the epicentre, the warning may be extended to a larger area.

Tsunami Warning Centre (TWC)
Centre that issues timely tsunami information messages.  The messages can be information, watch, or warning messages, and are based on the available seismological and sea level data as evaluated by the TWC, or on evaluations received by the TWC from other monitoring agencies. The messages are advisory to the official designated emergency response agencies. Regional TWCs monitor and provide tsunami information to Member States on potential ocean-wide tsunamis using global data networks, and can often issue messages within 10-20 minutes of the earthquake.  Local TWCs monitor and provide tsunami information on potential local tsunamis that will strike within minutes. Local TWCs must have access to continuous, real-time, densely-spaced data networks in order to characterize the earthquakes within seconds and issue a warning within minutes.

An example of a Regional Tsunami Warning Centre is the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center which provides international tsunami warnings to the Pacific.  After the 26 December 2004 tsunami, the PTWC and JMA have acted as an Interim Regional TWC for the Indian Ocean.

Examples of sub-regional TWCs are the NWPTAC operated by the Japan JMA, WC/ATWC operated by the US NOAA NWS, and CPPT operated by France.  These centres, along with Russia and Chile, also act as national TWC providing local tsunami warnings for their countries.

Tsunami Warning Centre Products
Tsunami Warning Centres issue four basic types of messages:  1) information bulletins when a large earthquake has occurred but there is little or no tsunami threat; 2) regional watch and warning bulletins when there is a potential threat of a destructive tsunami; 3) ocean-wide warning bulletins when there is confirmation of tsunami waves capable of widespread tsunami destruction beyond the local area; and 4) tsunami communication test messages to regularly exercise the system. Initial evaluations and messages are based only on the faster arriving seismic information, specifically earthquake location, magnitude, and depth. If a tsunami threat is possible, estimated tsunami wave arrival times are calculated and sea level records are examined to confirm whether a tsunami has been generated.  Watch and Warning bulletins are updated hourly until the threat is gone.  In the Pacific, the types of messages issued by the PTWC include a Pacific-Wide Tsunami Warning Bulletin, Regional Expanding Tsunami Warning and Watch Bulletin, Regional Fixed Tsunami Warning Bulletin, Tsunami Information Bulletin, and Tsunami Communication Test Dummy Message.

Tsunami Watch
The second highest level of tsunami alert. Watches are issued by the Tsunami Warning Centres (TWCs) based on seismic information without destructive tsunami confirmation. The watch is issued as a means of alerting the affected populations located, for example, one to three hours tsunami travel time beyond the warned area. Subsequent text products are issued at least hourly to expand the watch and warning area, upgrade all areas to a warning, or cancel the watch and warning. A Tsunami Watch may be included in the text of the message that disseminates a Tsunami Warning.

UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Established in 1945, UNESCO promotes international cooperation among its Member States in the fields of education, science, culture and communication.  Today, UNESCO works as a laboratory of ideas and standard setter to forge universal agreements on emerging ethical issues.  The Organization also serves as a clearinghouse that disseminates and shares information and knowledge, while helping Member States to build their human and institutional capacities in diverse fields.  The UNESCO Constitution states, “Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constructed.”  (http://www.unesco.org/)

WDC
World Data Center. The WDC system was created to archive and distribute data collected from the observational programmes of the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year. Originally established in the United States, Europe, Russia, and Japan, the WDC system has since expanded to other countries and to new scientific disciplines. The WDC system now includes 52 Centres in 12 countries. NGDC is co-located with the World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology which combines the responsibilities of the former WDC-Marine Geology and Geophysics and WDC-Solid Earth Geophysics into a single new data center that manages global geophysical, sea floor, and natural hazards data. These data cover time scales ranging from seconds to millennia and they provide baseline information for research in many disciplines.  (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/wdc/wdcmain.html)

 

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