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Surviving a Tsunami - Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan
UPDATE: Spanish & French versions. The booklet recounts actions that saved lives following the tsunami from the largest earthquake ever measured -- the magnitude 9.5 earthquake in Chile on May 22, 1960. In addition, lessons learned from the 2010 tsunami were included in the 2012 brochure. (English, Spanish, French).
ITIC International Training Programme - Caribbean
This video summarizes the trainings in the Caribbean during 2013 and 2014.
Global Hazard Maps
VIDEO: TsunamiTeacher USA
Learn the basics of tsunamis. (English, Samoan).
Hawaii Historical Tsunami Runup maps
Runups in the Hawaiian Islands for Large, Pacific-Wide, 20th and Early 21st Century Tsunamis.
Tsunami, The Great Waves
The brochure provides information on tsunami science and describes safety rules and programs. (English, Spanish, French, Chinese).
Tsunami Awareness Poster
English, Spanish, Chinese (Traditional & Simplified), Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Singalese and French.
Where the First Waves Arrive in Minutes
The booklet draws survival lessons from eyewitness accounts of the tsunami of December 26, 2004 in Aceh, and of the July 17, 2006 tsunami on the south coast of Java. (Arabic, Bahasa, English, French and Spanish).
The Glossary defines technical tsunami terms. (Arabic, Bahasa, English, French, Spanish).
VIDEO: Post-tsunami Survey
Learn the basics of a post-tsunami survey. The video summarizes a post-tsunami science survey of the August 2012 tsunami that impacted El Salvador. (English captions).
|New O‘ahu Extreme Tsunami Evacuation Zone maps|
Over the last few years, scientists in Hawaii have been investigating plausible worst-case tsunami inundation modeling scenarios along the Aleutian Trench. A gigantic tsunami generated in this source region would provide the least evacuation time, approximately 4-5 hours, for Hawaii residents.
In newly released information, scientists report that O‘ahu, Hawai‘i tsunami inundation from a M9.2 earthquake in the eastern Aleutians would far exceed the flooding observed in Hawai‘i from past historical tsunamis. Independent geological evidence on Kaua‘i and in Alaska suggests that such a tsunami was generated sometime in the past 500 years. In response to these findings, the City & County of Honolulu, in conjunction with State, Federal, and community stakeholders, have developed a new set of O‘ahu Extreme Tsunami Evacuation Zone maps, refuge areas, and evacuation routes. The Extreme maps represent an unlikely worst-case scenario and do not replace the current, standard tsunami evacuation maps, which are based on historical tsunamis. Rather, they add a second evacuation zone for a worst case, extreme, once in a thousand years tsunami event.
O‘ahu residents are invited to attend free public information outreach workshops in November and December to preview and provide comments on new Extreme Tsunami Evacuation Zone maps. Each workshop will be community-specific. Representatives from the O‘ahu Department of Emergency Management, as well as ITIC and PTWC, will be on hand to present the new maps, discuss the implications for O‘ahu residents, and answer questions.
Caption (left): Eastern Aleutian Trench earthquake (red star)
Caption (right): Proposed Tsunami Map for Waikiki (orange = existing; yellow = additional Extreme evacuation zones)
View and download Tsunami Safety Rules flyers, click here.
View and download Hawaii Boater's Hurricane and Tsunami Safety Manual, click here.
View and download ITIC's collection of Hawaii maps and posters, click here.
|New PTWC Tsunami Products for Pacific started 1 October 2014|
On 1 October 2014, the US NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) commenced issuance of New Enhanced Tsunami Products for all Pacific countries, culminating a 7-year intergovernmental process coordinated by the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) through its Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (ICG/PTWS). PTWC retired its Warning and Watch services, and began issuing wave height threat forecasts to country National Tsunami Warning Centers, who will now assess and issue Warnings using guidance from the PTWC, national, and other sources.
Most of the world's earthquakes and tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas, an area spanning more than 20,000 kilometers east to west. Over history, the Pacific has had 75% of the world’s fatal tsunamis, with 99% of those casualties from local tsunamis that struck within minutes. On average, the Pacific is hit by a locally damaging tsunami every year or two, and by a major Pacific-wide tsunami a few times each century. Over the past nine years (2005-2014), the Pacific witnessed six destructive and deadly tsunamis that placed Pacific countries in various levels of warnings for local and distant tsunamis. However, since the start of the international warning system for the Pacific in 1965, less than 1% of tsunami deaths have occurred in the far field, as compared to ~17% of tsunami deaths prior to 1965.
|Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Exercise (IOWAVE), 9-10 September 2014|
24 countries of the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System took part in an international tsunami exercise on 9-10 September 2014. The exercise, coordinated by the UNESCO IOC under the leadership of Australia and Indonesia, tested the effectiveness of stakeholder communication flows, country readiness, and tsunami emergency procedures. IOWAVE14 was conducted in real time with the IO Regional Tsunami Service Providers (Australia, India, Indonesia) providing notification messages to country National Tsunami Warning Centers for two simulated scenarios, a M9.1 south of Java, Indonesia, and a M9.0 in the Makran Trench, south of Iran and Pakistan. For more information, visit the IOTIC IOWAVE14 web page. For Media reports, click HERE.
|Recent events, in brief:|
The 12 April 2014 magnitude 7.6 (11.315°S, 162.211°E, depth=29 km, strike-slip faulting) and 13 April 2014 magnitude 7.4 (11.451°S, 162.069°E, depth=35 km, thrust faulting) about 100 km southeast of Kirakira, Solomon Islands generated small, non-destructive local tsunamis. This region is characterized transitional transform tectonics from thrust faulting along New Britain Trench to the northwest to thrust faulting along the New Hebrides Trench to the southeast. The events triggered regional tsunami warning alerts by the PTWC, which cancelled their alerts 1-2 hrs later when only 20-30 cm wave were observed at the Honiara sea level gauge.
|Tsunamis recorded on nearby coastal sea level gauges in the Solomon Islands (Honiara, Lata Wharf), Vanuatu (Luganville, Port Vila), and New Caledonia (Hienghene, Lifou, Ouinne). Courtesy M. Yamamoto.|
|PTWC RIFT coastal tsunami forecast available ~30 min after the earthquake.|
The 1 April 2014 magnitude 8.2 Mw Northern Chile earthquake (19.642 S, 70.817 W, depth 20 km) occurred at 2347 UTC and generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region and caused damage locally. According to news reports, there were at least 7 dead due to the earthquake ground shaking and over 200 injured. There was tsunami port damage reported at the nearest city of Iquique, Chile, 79 km away from the epicenter and inundation along the coasts of Pisagua and Arica. In February 2010, a magnitude 8.8 Mw located near the central coast of Chile generated a tsunami that caused 156 fatalities.
According to the USGS, the 1 April 2014 earthquake off the Chilean coast occurred as a result of shallow depth thrust faulting slip on the primary plate boundary interface between the Nazca and South American plates. In the region of the earthquake, the Nazca plate subducts eastward beneath the South American plate at a rate of 65 mm/yr.
For more technical information, visit this tsunami's event page (click here).
PTWC RIFT tsunami forecast animation showing tsunami waves as they propagate across the Pacific.